Napthalene Poster Final Hollie Migdol
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Napthalene Poster Final Hollie Migdol
Toxins Associated with Energy Production & Utilization: Naphthalene
Hollie Migdol, Antonio Machado
Department of Environmental & Occupational Health, California State University, Northridge
Environmental Fate & Transport Regulations
Routes of Exposure
Mechanisms of ToxicityToxicological Endpoints
Metabolism of Naphthalene
Association with Energy Production
Naphthalene exposure can be produced by:
• Coal tar
• Petroleum refining
• Burning coal or oil
Naphthalene is produced commercially from either coal tar
or petroleum. Naphthalene also occurs naturally in fossil
fuels such as petroleum and coal, and are produced when
organic materials (e.g., fossil fuels, wood, tobacco) are
• Hydraulic fracturing
The EPA is currently conducting a study to determine the
impacts on ground water and drinking water from fracking.
There are 11 variations of chemicals containing
naphthalene that are used in the fracturing. Naphthalene
is mainly used as a gelling agent and non ionic surfactant.7
There are 3 possible routes of exposure to Naphthalene:
• Skin absorption- Contact with contaminated soil or water can induce this route of
exposure and naphthalene will be absorbed into the blood stream.
• Ingestion – Contaminated food can be consumed or accidentally ingested due to the
inhalation of. The intestine wall will absorb the compounds through passive diffusion
and then will be transported to the liver for further metabolism through the portal
• Inhalation- Molecules of naphthalene in the air can be inhaled through the mouth
and nose. An inhaled substance may be eliminated from the lung by mucociliary or
cough clearance to the gastrointestinal tract, by passive or active absorption into the
capillary blood network, or by metabolism in the mucus or lung tissue.16
The general population is exposed to naphthalene mainly by inhalation of ambient and
indoor air. Exposure to naphthalene may occur from ingestion of drinking water and/or
food, but these exposures are expected to be much less than inhalation exposures for
the general population.2
Majority of naphthalene entering the environment is through releases from combustion. About 10% of the naphthalene released in the environment is related to
coal production and distillation. 92.2% of the naphthalene released into the environment is released into the air. Naphthalene in the atmosphere can be
transferred to soil and surface water through deposition, 2-3% of the naphthalene in the air is transmitted to other environmental media.2 Naphthalene is
removed from the air through reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals.2 The half-life of Naphthalene undergoing this reaction is less than one
day. Naphthalene reacts with ozone, nitrate radicals and N2O5 while in the atmosphere.1
The biodegradation half-life of Naphthalene in the soil at the depths of 3.3m-12.5m ranges from 18-480 days.6 This is dependent on the the microbial count and
oxygen content of the soil. The higher the microbial count in the soil results in a lower biodegradation half-life and the lower the oxygen content of the soil results
in the higher biodegradation half-life. The lowest microbial counts are found in finer soils.6
About 5% of all Naphthalene entering the environment is released into the water. Some naphthalene (about 60%) from these sources is discharged into surface
waters and the remainder is distributed to POTWs. It is likely that volatilization will be an important route of naphthalene loss from water. The half-life of
naphthalene in the Rhine River was 2.3 days, based on monitoring data.2 The mean concentration of naphthalene found in the water samples taken from 31
freshwater and estuarine sites adjacent to, nearby, or downstream from potential pollutant sources in Florida was 33 mg/L.12 Naphthalene is rarely detected in
Hemolytic anemia: Hemolytic anemia is the most frequently reported manifestation
of naphthalene exposure in humans.2 Naphthalene exposure may be an important
cause of G-6-PD-deficiency-related acute hemolysis.15
Jaundice: Jaundice has been reported in infants and adults after exposure to
naphthalene.11 However, the jaundice is a consequence of hemolysis rather than a
direct effect of naphthalene on the liver.2
Cataracts: In humans, cataract formation has been associated with exposure to
naphthalene.2 Cataracts occurred in 8 of 21 workers employed for 5 years in a dye-
producing plant where naphthalene was used.10
• Naphthalene has been reported to induce oxidative stress, resulting in
lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in a cultured macrophage cell line,
• DNA single-strand breaks are caused by naphthalene in hepatic
• CPY1A2 was identified as the most effective isoform for naphthalene
metabolism. Other p450 enzymes involved are CYP3A4, 2E1, and 2A6.
Although CYP3A4 showed generally lower metabolic activity toward
naphthalene than CYP1A2. In regards to the secondary metabolism of
naphthalene the primary metabolites were analyzed for metabolism
by P450 isozymes. CYP1A2 and 2D6, and CYP2A6 and 3A4 were
identified as the most efficient isoforms for metabolizing 1-naphthol
and dihydrodiol, respectively.5
• Another study used mice with no CYP2F2 showing that CYP2F2 plays a
significant role in naphthalene induced lung toxicity but not
naphthalene induced nasal toxicity. The loss of CYP2A5 expression led
to decreases in the rates of naphthalene metabolic activation by
olfactory mucosa microsomes. CYP2A5 plays a role in bioactivation
and toxicity of naphthalene in the olfactory mucosa but not in the
• Naphthalene causes severe dose- and site-selective injury to mouse
nonciliated bronchiolar (Clara) epithelial cells. Toxicity is characterized
by exfoliation of injured Clara cells into the airway lumen 24 h after
exposure. early stages of injury include smooth ER swelling and bleb
formation which precede increases in cell membrane permeability
after acute naphthalene injury to bronchiolar Clara cells in vivo.17
Chemical Name Cancer Potency
No Significant Risk Level
Naphthalene13 0.12 5.8C10H8
Agency2 Regulated Value2
ACGIH TLV(8-hr TWA): 10ppm
EPA Air emissions: none allowed
Drinking water: DWEL 0.7 mg/L
Reportable quantities (Hazardous Waste): 100 lbs.
RfD (oral): 2.0 x10-2 mg/kg/day
REL (10-hr TWA): 10ppm
IDLH: 250 ppm
OSHA PEL (8-hr TWA): 10ppm
Naphthalene inhalation in humans causes headache, confusion, eye irritation, nausea,
and profuse perspiration with vomiting, inflammation of the optic nerve, bloody urine,
and edema. Naphthalene ingestion has resulted in abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting,
diarrhea, darkening of the urine, irritation of the bladder, and hypothermia.8
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Naphthalene is a common toxin associated with
energy production and utilization. This poster is a
review of scientific journals and their data pertaining
to Naphthalene studies. It follows the pathway of
Naphthalene starting from its presence in the
environment followed by the possible exposure
routes by humans. The research continues to
describe the metabolism inside the body,
toxicological endpoints, mechanisms of toxicity,
current regulations, and the association of
Naphthalene with energy production. The main
question to be addressed involves determining the
mechanism of toxicity with in the body of humans
and whether or not Naphthalene has the potential to
cause cancer within humans.
A current major concern in energy production is the outcome of using toxic chemicals in the process of
Hydraulic Fracturing and how they will affect the ground water. This allows for potential exposure to these
chemicals for the populations in the areas where Hydraulic Fracturing occurs. The toxicological endpoints of
Naphthalene exposure and the mechanisms of toxicity need to be studied further. Although there are no studies
that have been able to prove carcinogenesis in humans following Naphthalene exposure, there is clear evidence
of carcinogenesis within rat studies. There is also clear evidence that Naphthalene has detrimental effects on
DNA and can induce oxidative stress. DNA disruptions and oxidative stress are often associated as contributors to
carcinogenesis. With the data collected in this assignment it is safe to assume that Naphthalene exposure will
probably cause cancer in humans.
Cancer: Naphthalene is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).10 The ATSDR reviewed 45 studies and of these studies, 10 found
evidence of chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, recombination abnormalities, or DNA fragmentation. The National Toxicology
Program conducted a 2-year study on rats involving the inhalation of naphthalene and determined “clear evidence of carcinogenic activity”
based on increased incidences of respiratory epithelial adenoma and olfactory epithelial neuroblastoma of the nose.13
Naphthalene is a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)
made up of two benzene rings attached to one
another. PAHs are released into the environment
through domestic and industrial incomplete
combustion processes. There are some PAHs that are
known human carcinogens and many that are
possible human carcinogens but require further
Naphthalene is a white solid substance that easily
evaporates. It is also known by the names of white tar,
tar camphor, mothballs and moth flakes. Its primary
uses in the United States is in the production of
plastics, dyes, resins, lubricants and fuels. Naphthalene
is also used as a pesticide. It naturally occurs in the
environment in fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal.
Naphthalene is released into the environment through
the burning of wood and tobacco products. Majority of
the Naphthalene entering the environment is through
Following exposure, Naphthalene is metabolically
activated by p450 enzymes and undergoes phase I and
phase II metabolism. The parent molecule itself does
not cause injury to the body but the metabolites that
are created during the detoxification process by the
body. Further studies are required to determine the
process of carcinogenesis for Naphthalene .
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in a Google doodle. Available: http://www.geneticseducation.nhs.uk/blog/?p=4361
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http://www.lwvnyc.org/Hydraulic_Fracturing.html [accessed 17 December 2013].
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http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/cataracts [accessed 17 December 2013].