Namibia 2012-13 Health Accounts: Key Findings and Policy Implications
Resource Type: Brochure
Authors: Ministry of Health and Social Services, Republic of Namibia
Published: June 30, 2015 Resource Description: The current exercise (fiscal year 2012/13) is Namibia’s fourth round of Health Accounts and is the first round conducted using the SHA 2011 methodology; the prior three rounds covered 11 years of spending between 1998/99 and 2008/09. These prior rounds have been critical to informing the design and review of the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan. Health Accounts estimates of spending in priority areas such as reproductive health have informed resource allocation discussions. Further, combined with information from other sources regarding the geographic distribution of health resources, Health Accounts estimates have helped the Ministry of Health and Social Services develop a resource allocation formula that is currently under review for implementation. This brochure presents health expenditure data by households, public and private institutions for the 2012/13 fiscal year.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Namibia 2012-13 Health Accounts: Key Findings and Policy Implications
Key Findings and
This brochure presents health expenditure data by households,
public and private institutions for the 2012/13 fiscal year.
Increase government health expenditure to achieve
the Abuja target and mobilize domestic resources to
sustain Health and HIV/AIDS progress in light of
declining donor funding.
Contain increases in household out-of-pocket (OOP)
expenditure.While the share of OOP is less than the
15%- 20% threshold indicated byWHO to reduce
incidence of catastrophic spending in a country, the
increase in share compared to that of 2008/09
indicates the need to put it in check through
measures such as increasing the coverage of the
medical aids schemes.
Health spending in Namibia is skewed toward
secondary and tertiary curative care.This calls for a
closer look into the resource allocation decisions to
ensure equity and efficiency.
Shift attention and funding to non-communicable
diseases (NCDs). NCDs represent roughly one-third
of Namibia’s disease burden. Despite this, health
expenditure on NCDs is small, only 5 percent ofTHE.
If not addressed, the growing burden of NCDs will
have an economic cost.
The Namibia Health Accounts 2012/13 exercise was undertaken by Government of Namibia
with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Namibia
Mission. Program management and support and funding for the health accounts estimation
were provided by USAID through the Health Finance and Governance (HFG) project,
implemented by Abt Associates Inc. under cooperative agreement AID-OAA-A-12-00080.
Reproductive health receives the highest allocation of funds, 38 percent of THE,
followed closely by infectious and parasitic diseases at 33 percent. Within the
infectious and parasitic diseases category, spending is highest on HIV/AIDS at 13
percent of THE, followed by respiratory infections at 10 percent.
Approximately 5 percent of THE is on non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
Health spending in Namibia is predominantly for curative care. Curative care
includes all inpatient and outpatient care whose principal intent is to relieve
symptoms of illness or injury. Spending on prevention services represents
6 percent of THE.
What is the Breakdown of Spending by Disease?
Health Expenditures by Disease/Condition, 2012/13
How is Spending Allocated amongType of Service?
Health expenditures by type of service, 2012/13
REPUBLIC OF NAMIBIA
Ministry of Health and Social Services
What is the Health Accounts Methodology?
Health Accounts is an internationally standardized
methodology utilized by countries to track funding flows
through the health sector in a given year. More specifically,
Health Accounts measures how a country’s total health
expenditure (THE) flows from financing sources to financing
agents, health care providers, and health functions. As the
globally recognized methodology for tracking health
resources, Health Accounts allows cross-comparisons with
data from other countries. Health Accounts data measure
financial performance and answer key policy questions, which
makes it a critical tool for policy analysis and strategic
planning for: Sustainability: Is health financing too donor
dependent? Equity: Are households bearing too heavy a
burden? Efficiency: Does spending favor inpatient care?
Health Accounts in Namibia
The current exercise (fiscal year 2012/13) is Namibia’s fourth
round of Health Accounts and is the first round conducted
using the SHA 2011 methodology; the prior three rounds
covered 11 years of spending between 1998/99 and 2008/09.
These prior rounds have been critical to informing the design
and review of the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan.
Health Accounts estimates of spending in priority areas such
as reproductive health have informed resource allocation
discussions. Further, combined with information from other
sources regarding the geographic distribution of health
resources, Health Accounts estimates have helped the Ministry
of Health and Social Services develop a resource allocation
formula that is currently under review for implementation.
Health Expenditure data was collected from a wide range of primary and
Ministries and public institutions including: Ministry of Health and Social
Services, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Education,
National Health Information System, Namibia Financial Institutions
Supervisory Authority, National Population Census, Health Facility Census
data, electronic Patient Management System, the Electronic Dispensing
Tool, and WHO Choice.
Donors (bilateral and multilateral)
Private medical aid schemes
A representative sample of private employers
Household expenditure data from the 2013 Namibia Demographic and
Trends in Health Spending
Total government expenditure and total government health
expenditure, 2001/02-2012/13 (real 2012/13 N$ millions)
Government health expenditure has increased steadily from year to year
(dotted line represents years where Health Accounts data was not captured).
As of 2012/13, government health expenditure as a percentage of total
government expenditure was 13 percent. This means that the government is
allocating nearly 15 percent of its budget to the health sector, as per the Abuja
The government is the biggest contributor to health spending in the country;
it represents over half of total health spending (54 percent).
To What Extent Are Funds Pooled to
Who Financed Health?
Health expenditures by financing source, 2012/13
Health expenditures by financing scheme, 2012/13
Forty-four percent of THE is pooled and managed through the private medical
aids (30%) and the Public Service Employees Medical Aid Scheme (PSEMAS)
(14%). The government through the Ministry of Health and other public entities
manages 40 percent (outside of the resources managed by for PSEMAS).
Together with PSEMAS, this puts the government in a unique position to
influence resource allocation decisions for over half of the total resources
flowing to the health sector to improve equity and efficiency.
Relatedly, households’ out of pockets (OOP) payments constituted 11 percent
of the THE. This is a three forth increase in share from that of 6.3 percent in