perfect vs perfect continous
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Presentperfect continous
PRESENT PERFECT/ PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS
Present PerfectFORM[has/have + past participle]Examples:You have seen that movie many times.Have you seen that movie many times?You have not seen that movie many times.Complete List of Present Perfect FormUSE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now, already, yet, etc.
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before NowWe use the Present Perfect to say that an actionhappened at an unspecified time before now. Theexact time is not important. You CANNOT use thePresent Perfect with specific time expressions suchas: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was achild, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, thatday, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfectwith unspecific expressions such as:ever, never, once, many times, severaltimes, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:I have seen that movie twenty times.I think I have met him once before.There have been many earthquakes in California.People have traveled to the Moon.People have not traveled to Mars.Have you read the book yet?Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to Englishlearners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:TOPIC 1 ExperienceYou can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is likesaying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to saythat you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect isNOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:I have been to France.This sentence means that you have had the experience of beingin France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.I have been to France three times.You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.I have never been to France.This sentence means that you have not had the experience ofgoing to France.I think I have seen that movie before.He has never traveled by train.Joan has studied two foreign languages.A: Have you ever met him?B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over TimeWe often use the Present Perfect to talk about change thathas happened over a period of time.Examples:You have grown since the last time I saw you.The government has become more interested in artseducation.Japanese has become one of the most popular courses atthe university since the Asian studies program wasestablished.My English has really improved since I moved toAustralia.
TOPIC 3 AccomplishmentsWe often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments ofindividuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.Examples:Man has walked on the Moon.Our son has learned how to read.Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.Scientists have split the atom.TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are ExpectingWe often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which weexpected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggeststhat we are still waiting for the action to happen.Examples:James has not finished his homework yet.Susan hasnt mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.Bill has still not arrived.The rain hasnt stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different TimesWe also use the Present Perfect to talk about severaldifferent actions which have occurred in the past atdifferent times. Present Perfect suggests the process is notcomplete and more actions are possible.Examples:The army has attacked that city five times.I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.We have had many major problems while working on thisproject.She has talked to several specialists about her problem,but nobody knows why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present PerfectWhen we use the Present Perfect it means that somethinghas happened at some point in our lives before now.Remember, the exact time the action happened is notimportant.Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in foran experience. We can do this with expressions such as: inthe last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far,up to now, etc.Examples:Have you been to Mexico in the last year?I have seen that movie six times in the last month.They have had three tests in the last week.She graduated from university less than three years ago.She has worked for three different companies so far.My car has broken down three times this week.
NOTICE"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different inmeaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and itis considered a specific time which requires Simple Past."In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. Itis not considered a specific time, so it requires PresentPerfect.Examples:I went to Mexico last year.I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.I have been to Mexico in the last year.I have been to Mexico at least once at some pointbetween 365 days ago and now.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses ofMixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show thatsomething started in the past and has continued up untilnow. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday"are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.Examples:I have had a cold for two weeks.She has been in England for six months.Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limitedto Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of MixedVerbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" aresometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday“, “all day”, “all week”, “all year” are all durations which are often used with the Present Perfect Continuous. Examples: They have been talking for the last hour. She has been working at that company for three years. What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes? James has been teaching at the university since June. We have been waiting here for over two hours! Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?
USE 2 Recently, LatelyYou can also use the Present Perfect ContinuousWITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Withoutthe duration (any specific mention of time), the tensehas a more general meaning of "lately.“ It expresses ageneral activity in progress recently, lately.We often usethe words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize thismeaning.Examples:Recently, I have been feeling really tired.She has been watching too much television lately.Have you been exercising lately?Mary has been feeling a little depressed.Lisa has not been practicing her English.What have you been doing?
USE 3• If you can see the signs of the action , present perfect continuous is used. My hands are dirty. I’ve been repairing the car. Kate’s clothes are covered in paint. She has been painting the ceiling. In this sentence, we are interested in the activity. It doesn’t matter whether something has finished or not . In this example, the activity (painting the ceiling) has not been finished.
IMPORTANTRemember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or"recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as"Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick orunhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that yousmell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you cansee, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someoneby using this tense incorrectly.REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed VerbsIt is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in anycontinuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbscannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present PerfectContinuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.Examples:Sam has been having his car for two years. Not CorrectSam has had his car for two years. CorrectADVERB PLACEMENTThe examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always,only, never, ever, still, just, etc.Examples:You have only been waiting here for one hour.Have you only been waiting here for one hour?
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS• With certain verbs (most notably live work, teach), there is nodifference in meaning between two tenses when since or for isused. The progressive can imply a temporary state , but notalways.I have lived here since 1995.I have been living here since 1995.He has worked at the same store for ten years.He has been working at the same store for ten years.My niece has been living with us for two years, but she is movingto her own flat next month.
We can’t use non-progressive verbs with present perfectcontinuous. I have known Alex since he was a child. How long have they been married?•Always, never, sometimes (frequency adverbs)•Once, twice, several times (expressions that tell us how manytimes an action occurred)•Just, already, yet (words telling that the action is completed)WE CAN’T USE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE WITHTHESE WORDS.
The most significant difference between these tenses is observedin this kind of examples:He has been writing letters since breakfast time. He has writtenonly six letters.In the first sentence the focus is on the duration, lenght orprocess, whereas in the second sentence the focus is on theproduct or quantity.How long for PP continuousHow much, how many or how many times for PPS.