popular struggle and management
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Popularstrugglesandmovements 131123050547-phpapp01
Popular Struggle & Movements
• Won democracy in 1990.
• Formal power was with the King.
• Real power with elected representatives.
• 2001 – Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge.
• 2005 – Dissolution of Parliament.
• 2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King.
• 7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other
• 21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to :
1) Restoration of Parliament.
2) Seizure of power from the Ruler.
3) To make Koirala Prime Minister.
• Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a new constituent
assembly to be elected.
Fight against Privatization of Water
1) World Bank pressurised Government to give up
control of Municipal Water supply.
2) Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba.
3) Company raised the price of water 4 times.
4) 4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and
5) Government agreed to negotiate.
6) Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made
Government to concede to all demands.
• Water supply was restored to municipality
at old rates.
led to popular
To establish democracy
SPA had some big
parties with MP’s
MAOISTS did not believe in
parliamentary democracy, involved
themselves in armed struggle thereby
establishing control over large parts.
They were joined by labour unions.
Organisation of indigenous people,
teachers, lawyers and human rights
Claims on an elected Govt.
One specific policy
FEDECOR composed of
Federation of farmers, confederation of
factory worker`s unions, middle class
students from University of Cochabamba
and the city`s growing population of
homeless street children. Socialist Party
Two way roles of these organisations
• Direct participation in competitive politics
• Creation of parties contesting elections and
Formation of Organizations…
• Those organisations that undertake activities to
promote their interest are called INTEREST
GROUPS or PRESSUREGROUPS.
PRESSURE GROUPS :
• Influence Government policies
• Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing
• Formed when people with common occupation,
interests, aspirations or opinions come together
to achieve a common objective.
Movements : Narmada BachaoAndolan
• Influence politics rather than directly take part
in electoral competition
• They are loose organisations
• Make informal decisions and are flexible
• They depend on spontaneous mass
• Are united organisations
• Do not care much for mass participation
• Promote the interest of a particular section or group
• Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations &
• Represent a section of society
• Example : Workers, Employees, Business Groups,
Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste Groups
• Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in
FEDECOR (FeracionDepartamentalCochabambina de
• Represents some common or general interest that needs
to be defended.
• Members may not benefit from the cause that the
• Promote collective good
• Aim to help groups rather than their own members
• Group fighting against bonded labour is an example
• They are also called public interest groups
BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities Community Employees
• Made of Govt. employees that campaigns against
• It addresses problems of its members who suffer
• Its concern is with social justice and social equality for
the entire society
• Issue specific movements and seek to achieve a single
objective within a limited time frame
Single Issue Movements…
• Specific objective of reviving the king’s orders that led to
suspension of democracy
• Specific issue of people displaced by creation of
• To stop the dam
• Questioned all such big dams and requirement of such
• Has a clear leadership and organisation
• Active life is short
Long Term & More Than One Issue
• No single organisation controls /guides such
• All these have a separate organisation,
independent leadership and different views
• Environmental movement
• Women’s movement
National Alliance for People’s
• Movement groups struggling on specific
issues are constituents of this loose
organisation which co ordinates the activities
of a large number of people`s movements
How do Pressure Groups & Movements
exert influence on Politics ?
• They gain public support and sympathy for their goals by
carrying out information campaigns, meetings and
• They influence media by giving attention to these issues
• Protest activities like strikes are done to force the
Government to take note of their demand
• Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor
• They participate in official bodies and committees that
offer advice to the Government
• Sometimes political parties grow out of movements
Example DMK and AIADMK
• Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in politics
but seek to influence on political parties
• Movement groups take a political stance without being a party
• They have political ideologies and position on major issues
Is their influence healthy?
• Pressure groups have deepened democracy.
• Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small
group of rich and powerful people
• Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of
countering this influence and reminding the Government of the
needs and concerns of ordinary citizens
• Sectional groups prevents the domination of one group over the
• They bring about a rough balance of power and accommodation
of conflicting interests 16Eshan Balachandar