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Polymeric nanoparticles for_antimicrobial drug delivery

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Career      

Transcripts - Polymeric nanoparticles for_antimicrobial drug delivery

  • 1. POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG DELIVERY POLYMERIC NANOPARTICLES FOR ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG DELIVERY Nilima Kanwar Hada*, Mahendra Singh Ashawat, Aniruddh Singh, ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Over the last few decades, the applications of nanotechnology in drug delivery have been extensively explored. The first polymer based drug delivery system was developed by Langer and Folkman in 1976 for macromolecule delivery. By loading drugs into nanoparticles through physical encapsulation, adsorption, or chemical conjugation, the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic index of the drugs can be significantly improved in contrast to the free drug counterparts. Nanoparticle based drug delivery have many advantages including high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of incorporation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, and feasibility of variable routes of administration, improving serum solubility of the drugs, prolonging the systemic circulation lifetime, releasing drugs at a sustained and controlled manner, preferentially delivering drugs to the tissues and concurrently delivering multiple therapeutic agents to the same cells for combination therapy. Polymeric nanoparticles can be synthesized with a sharper size distribution and particle properties e.g. size, zeta potentials, and drug release profiles can be precisely tuned with different polymer lengths, surfactants, and organic solvents. The surface of polymeric nanoparticles typically contains functional groups that can be chemically modified with either drug moieties or targeting ligands. For targeted antimicrobial delivery, polymeric nanoparticles have been frequently decorated with lectin, which is a protein that binds to simple or complex carbohydrates present on most bacterial cell walls. Polymeric nanoparticles have been explored to deliver a variety of antimicrobial agents to treat various infectious diseases. There are currently two major types of polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial drug delivery. One is formed by spontaneous self-assembly of diblock copolymers consisting of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. The hydrophobic segment forms a polymeric core containing the drugs while the hydrophilic segment shields the core from osponization and degradation. The rate of drug release can be tuned by varying the length of the hydrophobic chain. Various biodegradable polymers have been used to form the hydrophobic polymeric core, including poly (lactic acid) (PLA), poly (glycolic acid) (PGA), poly (lactidecoglycolide) (PLGA), poly (-carprolactone) (PCL), and poly (cyanoacrylate) (PCA), while polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been commonly used as a hydrophilic segment. Diblock copolymer nanoparticles are typically prepared through solvent displacement. In this process, polymers and drugs are first dissolved in a water-miscible organic solvent e.g. acetonitrile. The polymer drug mixture is then added to an aqueous solution. As the organic solvent evaporates, the block copolymers and drugs undergo nanoprecipitation to form nanoparticles consisting of a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell. Polymeric nanoparticles are primarily used to carry and deliver poorly water soluble drugs because of the hydrophobic nature of the nanoparticle core. Thus, biocompatible and biodegradable polymers have been used extensively in the clinic for controlled drug release and have shown great therapeutic efficacy, improvement of drug bioavailability and reduction of the dosing frequency and may also resolve the problem of nonadherence to prescribed therapy. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* Institute of Clinical Research India, Mumbai Hada N.K., Ashawat M.S., Singh Aniruddh Page 1

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