Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanodiagnostics
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Diagnosis is the Identification of the
nature and cause of a certain
Application of nanotechnology to medical
Use of nanodevices for the early disease
identification at cellular and molecular level.
Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and
application of extremely small things and can be
used across all the other science fields.
HOW SMALL IS NANOSCALE……
iii. Quantum dots.
vi. Carbon fullerenes (buckyballs).
viii. Blue Crab Nanosensor.
x. Nano barcode.
A biosensor is an
analytical device which
is used to determine the
concentration of a
specific substance in a
EXAMPLE OF BIOSENSOR:
The DNA capture
element instrument for
measurement of glucose
•Data analysis and
by a microprocessor.
A nanorobot is a tiny machine designed to perform a
specific task or tasks repeatedly and with precision
at nanoscale dimensions.
Used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting
the human body against pathogens.
Early diagnosis of disease.
Targeted drug-delivery of tumors.
Reparation, improvement, and maintenance of cells,
tissues, and organs by applying cell therapy and
tissue engineering methods.
TYPES OF NANOBOTS:
1. Nanorobotic microbivores:
Artificial phagocytes called microbivores could patrol
the bloodstream, seeking out and digesting unwanted
pathogens including bacteria, viruses, or
fungi.Microbivores would achieve complete clearance
of even the most severe septicemic infections in hours
or less. The nanorobots do not increase the risk of
sepsis or septic shock because the pathogens are
completely digested into harmless sugars, amino acids,
and the like, which are the only effluents from the
2. Surgical nanorobotics:
A surgical nanorobot, programmed or guided by a
human surgeon, could act as a semiautonomous on
site surgeon inside the human body, when
introduced into the body through vascular system or
They could make new class of self-powered
implantable medical devices, sensors, and portable
electronics, by converting mechanical energy from
body movement, muscle stretching, or water flow
Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance
of comprehensive oral health by employing
nanomaterials, biotechnology, including tissue
engineering, and ultimately, dental nanorobotics.
New potential treatment opportunities in dentistry
may include, local anesthesia, dentition
renaturalization, permanent hypersensitivity cure,
complete orthodontic realignments during a single
office visit, covalently bonded diamondised enamel,
and continuous oral health maintenance using
ii. Tooth repair.
iii. Dentin hypersensitivity.
iv. Tooth repositioning.
v. Dental durability and cosmetics.
5. Nanosensor in Aerospace:
Nanosensors can pass through membranes and
into lymphocytes, to detect early radiation damage
or infection in astronauts.
May be able to eventually be administered
through the skin every few weeks, avoiding
injections or IVs during space missions.
Eliminates the need to draw and test blood.
III) QUANTUM DOTS:
A quantum dot is a nanocrystal made of
semiconductor materials that are small enough to
exhibit quantum mechanical properties.
In display technologies, because the reflectivity of the
rods can be changed by changing their orientation
with an applied electric field.
In microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).
In cancer therapeutics.
Quantum dot Quantum dots
Bead emit light
UV light ON
Water molecules Nano device( NANO DOTS) WBC
Quantum dots find cancer signature….
Quantum dots breads
Quantum dots breads
Improving Cancer Treatment …
Intact noncancerous cells
Traditional Treatment Nanotechnology Treatment
A nanoshell, or rather a nanoshell Plasmons, is a
type of spherical nanoparticle consisting of a
dielectric core which is covered by a thin metallic
shell (usually gold). These nanoshells involve a
quasiparticles called plasmon which is a collective
excitation or quantum plasma oscillation where the
electrons simultaneously oscillate with respect to
all the ions.
Dendrimers are repetitively branched molecules.The
properties of dendrimers are dominated by the
functional groups on the molecular surface.
The delivery of anticancer drugs.
The ability to deliver pieces of DNA to the required
parts of a cell.
Use as blood substitutes.
Dendrimers also are used in the synthesis of
monodisperse metallic nanoparticles.
VI) BUCKY BALLS:
A fullerene is a molecule of
carbon in the form of a hollow
ssphere, ellipsoid, tube, and
many other shapes. Spherical
fullerenes are also called
In April 2003, fullerenes were
under study potential medical
use: binding specific antibiotics
to the structure to target
resistant bacteria and even
target certain cancer cells such
Nanobubbles are gas-containing cavities in aqueous
The tiny bubbles leak through the vascular pores of
the tumour and accumulate in the tumor tissue by
means of passive targeting due to the higher
permeability of tumour blood vessels compared with
normal tissue vasculature.
After extravasations, an increased acoustic signal is
obtained from the accumulated nanobubbles,
providing strong ultrasound contrast imaging. In
addition to diagnostic applications, the
nanobubbles show great potential as ultrasound-
mediated drug-delivery vehicles to facilitate drug
release and extravascular delivery.
VIII) BLUE CRAB SENSORS:
A substance found in the shell, called chitosan, is a
key component used in a nanosensor, a “system on a
chip” at the nanoscale.
Detects minute quantities of explosives, bioagents,
chemicals, and other dangerous materials in air and
This could lead to security and safety developments
for airports, hospitals, etc.
The science and technology of diagnosing, treating,
and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of
relieving pain, and of preserving and improving
human health, using nanoscale structured materials,
biotechnology, and genetic engineering, and
eventually complex machine systems and
MODE OF NANOMEDICINE
In-vitro diagnostics, nanomedicine could increase
the efficiency and reliability of the diagnostics using
human fluids or tissues samples by using selective
nanodevices, to make multiple analyses at
subcellular scale, etc.
In in vivo diagnostics, nanomedicine could develop
devices able to work inside the human body in order
to identify the early presence of a disease, to identify
and quantify toxic molecules, tumor cells etc.
X) NANO BARCODE:
DNA and other
biomaterials can be
sensed using encoded
• DNA molecules attach to the
ends of vertical carbon
nanotubes that are grown on a
• These detect specific types of
DNA in an analyte.