Ill thc I¡rtroduction, rvc presented a number ofcornmonly ex...
lt¡ttlnr ide,u ttbout bngtage lettrning
facts and opinions
Popukr ideas nbout language learning: facx rtnd
Sccond langu...
Popular ideas about knguage learning facts and
ltopular ideas about knguage learning facx and opiníons
The ea.rl...
hptlar ilets about
Populttr ideas about language barnittg: facts
language learníng: facts and opinions
/..'l'he clec...
l'opuhr irluu dhout ltn¡¡utgc le,trnin,q:Jhct rttttl opirtious
Popular idens ,tbout hngu.age learnin...
Popular itleas nbout latryuage learning:
facts and opinions
undersranding of them will permit teachers
and learners...
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Popular Ideas about Language Learning:facts and opinions

Taken: How languages are learned by Patsy M. lightbown & Nina Spada Oxford University press 2004
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      Education      

Transcripts - Popular Ideas about Language Learning:facts and opinions

  • 1. POPULAR IDEAS ABOUT LAI{GUAGE LEARb{ING: FACTS AND OPII{IONS Ill thc I¡rtroduction, rvc presented a number ofcornmonly expressed r:pini*rs.rs rtbout lr<¡w hnguages arc lca¡'ncd. 'e asked ¡'ou ro indicarc l'rorv strongly yuu.r agrcccl wirh these o¡rinions. Now that you have read abou¡ sorne of thr rheqn*1" l¡¡rcl rese¡trch in sccontl litrreuagc acr¡r.ri.sirion, takc:rnt¡tlrcr look at rhoseidr¿s. l{itve you chtrr¡¡ed yorrr nrin<{ ¡lrotrt thc imporrancr of inrita¡ion órsrorx$:rrvork, or whcther strrrting second lrngtrage insrrucrion earlv is really rhe trrsr approach? Or do you Fccl thut your viervs abour sr-¡ havc only been confirrn¿x,! by thc discussion in thc prcceding chapters? 'lt¡ conclude this introductiot-l to sur rescarch, here ¿rc our o.'n responscs {ü thcse popular ideas about langr.rage learning. 1 Languages are learned mainly through imitation Ir is difficult to find support for rhe argument that languages are lerrnnd rrainly through imiration. For one thing, learners produce many nrweil scrrte nces that they cor,r[d not lrave heard before. Thcse $e n te nce s are bascd sus': the le,rrners'developing undcrstanding of how the language systcm works-I'his is particularly evidcrrt rvith childrcn *'ho sa1'things like: 'l'm hiecingugr and I can't stop' and 'lt rvas upside down but I turned it upsitlc right' or wirfu second language learners who say 'The cou'boy rided int<l town' or 'T'he r¡ra¡r that I spoke to him is angry.'These cxamples and many othcrs provir,b evide¡rce rhat language learners do not simply intcrnaliz.e a grc:it lisr *¡f, imitated and memorized sentences. This does nor mean, however, that imitation has no role ro play in langrragn learning. Some childrcn imitntc a greor deal as they acquire their firsr languagrYet their language does not develop f¡ts¡cr or better tha¡¡ that ofchildren whw rarely imitate. Furthermote, chilclren do rrot imitate everything they hear, btw ofren sclcctivcly imitatc ccrtain words or strucrures which they are in the proccss oflcrrning.
  • 2. lt¡ttlnr ide,u ttbout bngtage lettrning facts and opinions Popukr ideas nbout language learning: facx rtnd Sccond language learncrs also produce man)'sentences rhat thev corrld nor havc lieard. In this u'a¡ thei'are like children learnins rheir first language. Sorne second languaee learners may find that rhey benefir from opportunities to inritate samples of the nerv language, and irnitation is clearly im¡:rortanr in clcveloping pro6ciency in pronunciatir:n and intonacion. For sorne advanced le irLncrs who are de termined to irnprove their pronr:nciarion, carefirl listening rnd irnitarion irr a languaqe laborrrory can be very valuablc. Brrr for beginning , ¿.,ú v.v : le,rrnels, the s]¡yisl-r" iñlita¡ion and rote memorization ¡hat characte¡ized audiolingu:rl lar.rguage approaches to language reaching led nrany learne rs to a dead end. They could recire bits oIperfectll. accurate languaqe, but the lack of practice in strLrggling ro unders¡and and mrrke themselves r-u-rdcrstood in gcnr-rinelv meaningful intc¡¿ction left nr:rn1'le,¡rncrs rvirh littlc nrLlre th¿ln r t--ollcction of sentence s, rvaiting For the monenr rvhen those se ntences rvould T'he cese fo¡ second langtrage learners is nrore cornplex. 3 People uith high lqt are good language leat"ners I'hc kind of intelligencc rl,hich is measuretl try t<¡ tc.sts is a good prcdicror iirr succcss in classloorls r.vl'ierc rhe cmphasis is o¡r lcarning nbottt thc latrguaflc (lrol cxar-nplc, grrnllr¿rr ltrlcs and vocal¡trl¿rv iteltis). lrr adc{ition, pcopic lvhcr rl,.r rvcll ou Ie tcsts nt,ry cto rvcll o¡r othcr liinds crf tcsts irs rvcli. Horvevcn i¡r nrrturirl langtrage learning settings ar-rc{ in cltrssroorns whct'c langutrr'3 rrcrclLrisitiort rltrough intcractive Ianguatc Lrsc is cmphasiz.ed, rcsc:rrch has shorvn th¿t learncrs rvith rr rvidc varier¡' of intcllecLual abilitic's c¿tr bc, succcssful lrrnguagc lcrtrrlcrs. "l'his is cspcciallv tlue if the skills which arc Parents x$ualb co?'t'ect young children uben tltey ma he gt"amntatical errors rsscsscd .r.,,ril .,tlnttn,-rtricati,rn skills r.,,ihcr tl',.,', mctrrlinqtri.ric klrorvlcdqc. 4 The t?xost imPortantfactor in second language rtcquisition sxtccess is motiua tion 'l"hcrc¡ is considerable variarion in the exrenr ro which parcnts correct rheir -fhe varia¡ion is besed parrh'on the children! age. When childrcn'.s speech. clrilclle n are very young pre-schoolers, parenrs rarely comment on granrrnatica.l crrc,rs although thcy mavcorrect lepses in politeness or the choice ofa rvord rhat docsn't make sense. As children reach school age, parents oftcn correct the kincls of non-star.rclard speech that they hope the ir children rvill or-rtgrou', for cxrtn-rple, 'lr{e and Frecl are going outsidc now.' The parcnts' ou'n sociolinguistic background is also a source of'r'ariation in thc amount and killd of correcrion thev engaee in. Sonre ¡urenrs hear norlring rvrong in the qrilnlrrtr of '-I'[rai'.s tl'rc bov s'lio I gave nrv books to' rvhile other.s rvill insist <ln 'to rvhont . that lclure rs who want to lc:rrn tcnd to do bctter than rhr¡se who clon't. But rve tnust guard agairtst too stroltg att intcrprctation of:rhis' Sonletin"res, evcn hiehly motivated learners encounter great difficulties in improvine the ir mastcrv oltlic langu,rgc. V'c l<ltow fol cxanrple , that le¿rli*¡s rvho bcgin lcrrrring:r second larreulge as adults rarcly achicve thc flr'rcucy and irccurácv tl-¡at childrcn c{o in 6rst larreu:tgc acquisition.'fhis failurc tc¡ achievc nlrive-likc rrbility cenriot lrc trtkcrl as cvidct"rcc thlt adult sccorld langtlagc lcarncrs are not rnc¡¡ivltcd tt¡ lertrn thc languirge.'Wc also knorv that in a gror.rp .rFhighly motivlrtc(l sccorrcl l,rngti,rgc learntrs, tlre rc arc rtlrva¡'s tlrosc wlro arc -l'his is sor¡rctirrlcs dttc to clifTcrcllccs in llngu:rge morc successfirl than othqrs. Eve ryor-re agr€es Ncvcrtlrclr'ss. cxtc¡lsivc o[rrertrrtions.-,f parcntr.rnd chil.ircn slrorv thrrt,:rs,r rrrlc, ¡larcnts ¡cnc{ to fbcus on rleaning rathcr rhan fbrm whe n they corrcct clrildrcris spr'ech. Thus, thei' may correct an incorrect rvord choicc, an i¡rcorrcct statemc¡rt ol the facts, or a rude remark, but rhey cither do nor noricc or do nor reacr ro errors rvhich. do not interfere rvith successful coln¡nunication. What rhis rells us is thar children clnn()r depend on r'r¡rrsistcnt corrective feedback in order ro learn rhe basic srructure (rhe rvorcl lelrnir.rg xprirudc and in how tlrc iustntction itrtcract.s rvith "indivitlual learners' sryles and prcf:crcttce.s for lcarning. of their form of rhe ortlcr, the grammatical morphemes, the inronation patterns) l,rrrguage. Fortunatel¡', they appear to be able to acquire rhe adulr While it is clear that older children and acluits can acquire a grear dcal oF langtrage rvithour any Formal ins¡rr.rction, the evidence su€igests that, rvithout co¡rective feedhsck lnd guidance, secont{ llngr-rage le an:ct's nray pe rsist in using ce rtai¡,t u n grrlnr marical fornrs for' 1's¿¡t. bc trscf:ull 2 opinions lirrr¡iulge with litrle or no explicit feedback. 1 t:: l, Clearly, teachers have no iuflue¡ce over a lear¡rcr'.s intrillsic motivat;or¡ for learning a se-ond langulgc. Learners cotnc i¡rt<¡ otrr clrtssroonrs ft'our dilFerent backgrounds and life experiences, all of which havc contributed to tFrcir artiti¡dcs torvard and mo¡ivation to learll the tlrgct language. The principal way rhat teachers can lnfluence le¿rtrcrs' rnotivatiolt i.s by making rhe classroom a supportive enviro¡rment in which students are stimulated, engaged in activities which arc appropriate to their age, interests and culrural backgrounds, and, mosr importantl¡ whcrc students can experienc€ stlc€GSS; r ñ; This in turn cen contributc tp posirive motivation, leading to still greafrr ü success. ffi # fi t, I 63
  • 3. l6¿ Popular ideas about knguage learning facts and ltopular ideas about knguage learning facx and opiníons 5 The ea.rlier a second language is irttroduced in schoolprogramt the greater tbe lihelihood success rvho began earlier (for example, ¡r 6 or 7 years old) in programs offe ring onl¡ insrruciion. This is cspecially true if the foreign language a ferv hJurs "r"eekof All course includes a period of rnore intensivc cxposrlre to the lrew langrrageshoutd be based o¡'r rc:rlisric csrimates oFl.rorv long ir takes to scl.rool programs l.nr,', . ,..Jnd language. O.e or nvo hours a wcek - cverl for seve n or e ig¡t This 'dripyears - rvill ,.,o, prJ,l,-,I. ve ry aciva'ced second language speakers. fecl that rhcy have ireen i".d' ,ppro..h Lft.n leac{s io Frusrrarion as learncrs ,r'.rdying'fo, yeirrs' rvithout making much Progress' Sadl¡ thci'are somctirnes of in learning "l-lrc tlccisiolt ebout when to introduce secor-rd or foreign language irrstruction rnusr depend on the obiectives of the language program in the palticrrlar' st'rci¡l conrext of the school.'$lhen the objective is native-like pe rfbrmance irr the second language, then it n.ray be desirable to begin exposure to the l,rnguage as early as possible. The research evidence is fairly strong that only rhosc rvho beqin second lenguege learning at an early age will evcntuirlly be i ncl isri nguishable fi'orn irrtive speakcrs. right abotrt this. 6 l'lorvcver, evcn in cascs whcrc such high levcls o[ skill are rargctcd, it is inrportunt to recognize certain disadvantages ofan early start, especi'.rlly whcrr rrrr early start in second language means ¡hat children have little opporttrnity to conrinuc to develop their knowledge of their first lar.rguage. Strbtrrrctivc [rilingualism rnay ha'r,e lastine negative consequences. For childrc:n From nr intirity-l,rnguage backgrounds, plograms promoting the developrnent of rhc first llnguage irt home and at school may be more irnportant for lollg-te rlll success in the second language rhan an early start in the second langtragc itself. l{cscrrch shorvs that a good fbunclation in the child's 6rst language, including rhc dcvclopment oFlite rac¡ is ir sottnd base to brrild on. Childrerl who cen llcgin their schooling in a langr.rage they already know will have more self<',unfi.l.'"t.., rvill be ablc to lear¡r nore effectively in the early school years, and rvill not losc valuable time in a pe riod oflirnbo duringwhich they struggle iust to urrclersr,rrrcl whrrr is happcning itr the classroonr. "r. i"ng,.r"g. itsclf rarhcr than atiempiS to tra'sfcr p:rttc.ts fro'r their ñr'st l;.;"d.. Inte rqstingl¡ some of ,Ét'" t"o" are remarkably similar to the kinds of errors made by first language learners' learnirlg is Thcsc observ:rrions arc a srrong indicarion th¡t sccand languagc w.rds into firsr-l:rrr¡iuage nor sir'ply :r proccss of ¡rr-rtrirI scco'd-larrgu,tqc ,hoi*.r', rher aspccts of thc scco¡rd languagc which ,.,r r.,.,.... R"icarclr has "ir., acquircd latcr or are diffc,rcnt lrom rhe first hnguagc will not nccessarily be tlr:¡n rlrosc asPccts rvhich are sinril:rr' rvith rnorc clifñcirlry scltooling in thcir fi rsr language . They are menrbe rs of a snrrlll n.r inority grou¡.> rvhcrc it is Itot pr:ictical krr schools to offer them an educational prograrn in tlrcir liLst langLngc, or thcy livc in iurisdictions whcre legislation h¡s tn¡r¡rdltcd I singlc languagc of cilucation for all children, regardless of:their lr,rck¡¡rourrrl, I:or these childrcn, it is crucial to havc sensitive educators who r*ipcct tlrc clrildrc¡r's difficulry, who eucourage patents to maintain the Ironre lrrr¡Etrrrg,c, ilrlcl who unde rstand that seconcl language learning takes time and somc c)n thc othcr hand, when crrors arc causcd by thc ovcrcxrcnsic¡n of nvcen the ñrst ar.rd second languages, thesc crrors nrly bc liffi.ul, ,u ou"í..on.,.. This ma.v be particularly problematic if learncrs are frequently in contact with other learners who mal<e the sarnc crrors' oarrial sirnilariry cflirrt, ittottgconrmitmcnt to mnintaining and developing the childt first language, it r¡ri he nrorc clficicnt tn begin second languagc teaching later. Older shlltlren (for cxemple, l0-yearoltls) arc eble to catch up veryquickly on those Most of the mistahes uhich second lñngulge . learrirc malee are due to interferencefrorn their frst language The transte r of parterns from the narivc language is undoubtedly one of thc cau.ses sources oi"..o* ir lerrner lrnguagc. Flowcvcr, there are other 'rajor mles. [;or ftrr arror. r,¡o, one of rvhich is ovrrgencraliz¡tion of t:rrgr:t-lar-rguagc ."^,r.,p¡., research has shown th"i s.cond languaee learners frorn tliFférent rvhc' first-l'",.,guag" backgrour.rds .fren rnakc tlii samt kinds ol errors la. guaee. I n srrch cases' seco nd-lan gurge cr rors learr', i nia p-^rri..,l"i r".or.rd .,rij"nt. of rhe learnerr'.f'fbrrt ro discover tlrc structttre of the target (llcurlv, [or ttrarry childrcn, rhcrc is no op¡rorrtrnity to havc tlrcil early liot lirrcigrt larrguage i¡rstruction or for second language instruction where the level of proficicncy rvhich is targeted is not native-like performance by all ¡tttrlcttts' tl¡c si¡uati.lr is qrrite different' tvhen the Eoll of the educarional and where there is a llro¡¡rntn is b¡rsic co¡nmunicative skill for all students, opinions 7 i. I I ir' S, tr t, I be gramrnatical rules one at a time, and leafners shoulá'Practise ex¡lmples of eaih one before going on to another Teachers shouldpresent may use Languagé learning is not simply linear in im development' Learners (suggesting that rhey have learned¡l¡at p"li.íl*. fo.r' Iccurately.i i,"g. * " il'r-j, i"if to produce that form ai stage v-,ind prodtrce it accurately again at 165
  • 4. hptlar ilets about Populttr ideas about language barnittg: facts language learníng: facts and opinions 9 /..'l'he clecline in accuracy may show rhat learners are incorporating nerv infi,lnlrrtion about tl'rc lariguage into their orvn interual systcrn of ruleS' An cxunr¡rle of this rvou[d be when learners who have learned the past te nse form ,rvt,nr' ,ed inflecúon for past ¿.r.s a rrrernorized 'chunk' learn to trse rhe regulerr rhey stoP ttsirlg''ent'an<i produce 'goed'' Once tcnsc nrarking. At this point, l,,ru'¡lcrs become all,are of the exceptions to the -rl past rense rule, they beqin ro rrsc 'we nr'correcrlv again. This provides evidence thar language development is rror jtrst adding ¡ule after rule, brrt integratine new ¡ules into an existing svstcnr of mles, readjustiltgand restrr:cturing until all the pieces 6t. sr¡tf,c B rsrle or .1*.,-,t, - s6ou'i'g rvh"r. tlteyinue ove I gcu.eralizecl a seconcl l:rnguagc ser''d to t[,c ,í¡.,rc tl,,ey l.,rve irlappropriai.ly tra,rsf.i,'.-tl a first l:rngr.rrgc rtrle l,rrrgtutge. :rre b¿sed :lil arr: pcrsistent, espcciellv $,iren,they arc sh,rrcd bt'rtln¡cmt to the leamers'áEre${i()n' srucle uts in,r class, ir is r¡scful t,, l-r.i,,g the prohlcrr"r 'l'his cloes not nrean leante rs should bc ."¡r".tcd to adoirt the correr$ fi¡rrrl qrr devel*prx*urtal ,rr'.,.tur. i,-,rn-,ediately or consiste ntly' lf rllc crror is lrased on a rvhr:lr the learner is reaórf{}r,it' It patrL,rrl, thc correcrion nray ouly be-,¡sclul whcn crrors nrly thtrs rcc¡ttire nrrny rspgÚioJ]s L) i 'l'circhershrtvcarcspon-sibilirl rohel¡'lc,.rrnclstlorhcirL',cst,ancl rhissu:merimcs rrcrs. [xccssivc fe cdb¿& on '-¡r*r rrrcrr¡rs clrarvi'g ,l-r,:i. ,,,.,-, tiá' ro pcrsistcrit e motivation, .f coursc, arcl te,rchcr¡i nrt¡:r i¡e ;;;r'h;;. . ,.,Jg"tiu. effect o' ,.nri,iu. to the way the ir stuclents re:lct to corrc'ction.'f hc kind of**rrrctinn t}f thc which is oflcrcd *ill nlro v:rry accordir.rg to tlrc specific characterisics ir fir¡t langng* rvill ,,u.Lnrr. Chilclre n and ,rdulrs'.'r,ith littlJ.,ducrtion i' the lrut ,,o, lr.".n, grcrrtly fronr s0¡rhisricetccl n'rcr¡lirrguistic cxplen:rtilmsolc'trtict's t'f tl'c lrnetri'qc nrlr-fin<-$ suclr ,,niu.rri,t r,,,il",',,, tuh,, ,,r..jt''"ttt1 itt atr or¿tcor¡-¡*-¡un.l*tri"r,,rrín,.r,.,f grc:rt vrrlue . lmmcc{iatc rcaction to crrors so¡te sttrclc't"^.tlcl cliscotlrlgc the nl fi'orra*r.*kil'r5' i.,iri.," .*,,iug ,.,.'Ly ",.r.rl"r"rr"r, to lrcl¡r tlm-rn mfiticc rvhilc firr,,tll.lr., i,,.l.r corrccrion is cxactly rv'h:rt is ncedccl an a ocrsistcnt crror:rt iust rhc rro|ltcllt rvllcrl it occurs.'l'hc re¡anrci¡ rvhiclr rrrc co't*rt h¿itd ."[J;i;;i¡Jtrr.k .1,,.. sh.rv rhrr, i^ cl:tssr.r,r's is givcn excla*ir-dy or 1n,r-.*.-pt", inrrncr.siorr cl:rsscs). lccilblcli rvhich 't'cc,rsts' prtsscs trtr,n,rticc& I-t'an;cr;convcrsarionll f rin.ip"tty i' the lorm of i;ry ,lo, recognize ir as correctior.r r¡nlcss thc ¡cachcr has rr nmrh*d of rifítiritg,. rh? strtdent - through tone ofvoice' a gesrure' or ihcirl cuprt*sinn I n.r áy, ro th. studentr'I thir.rk I uncle rstancl what you lrc srtyingand Itcsc¡rch hirs shorvn that no matter horv language is ¡rresented to iearners, crltrrin structures are acquired before others. This suggests that it is neither n(:ccssilry nor desirable to restrict learners' exposure to cettain linguisric suuc(rtrcs which are ¡re rce ived in linguistic terms to be'sirnple'- particularly rvlrcrr rhis involves thc isolated presenrarión, ordering, ar.rd practice oF 'ri rrr tlc' to'conr¡rlcx' featLtrcs. ¡ At tll,'s¡ttlctitlte,tltercisnodoubtthatsecnndlaneuagelcarncrsbcrrcfitfiorl to r lrc t,liirrrs of nirtivc s¡.rcrtkcrs and Huent bilinguals to mocli[' their speech Ircl¡r sccorrcl llrrgulue learners undersrllrd. This modified spccch conrain.s I vrtr.icr¡,of linguisric strucrurcs, bur or¡rits complex fbnns. It also irrcludes a r,r t r¡p, .,f' c.,lr uclsationril adj ustmcnts which enable seconcl Iangulgc learners itr intcrrtcrio¡rs rvith nrtive ,rnd more advanced speakers of the ,,, ",t11ag,. ,r..,,,,1 I*,,g,,,rge rnorc easil¡'. Teaclrers, like Parents, appear to be able to ilrr,l,crrsc rlrc corirplcxin, of the ir language intuitively as rhe learner's proficie nry -ivhich telling you how you can sav it berter'' irlt tc'tscs. 'lt¡cltcrs t¡lust illso lrc tware, |owever, that some linguistic-forrns are so lare g,crytln¡, specch that leart:ers have very little opportuniry to hear,.use , in t lrcir ,urtl lcirrn tlrcnr if rhc reacher does not make a.point of providing them. fhese ilrc t¡()r ncr;elisírrily difficult or iomplex fbrms, howeúer. As rve sarv in Chapter fr (pn¡¡cs l3l-2), in srrrdy 13 carried out in intensive communicative ESL ()ucbcc, tcrtchers almc¡st never used adverbs! af a,lults. 'leachers should teach simple language structares before comPlex ones clnr¡scs in Learners' errors sbould be corrected as soon a8 they are made in order to Preaent theformati*n bad habits clc*cloprnent Errors arc a natural part c,f lengr-rage lcarning.'l his is true oFthc ia''tgt'age learning by cldgrere an'i of a child's first language as w.li", áf "to'.'tl '11.,. .rror.'r.ü"1 the patterns of le¿rr.rers' developing ir.rterlan*uage on the false assllmPtioll tllrrr scconcl language clevelopment is Iineer. This c,rn bc see n in the orgtnizatiorr of'rcxtbocrks ruhich i.tttuduce a p¿trticular laneuage fiatule irl the 6rst ui-lit Iultl lcirrfbrce it in severirl subsequent units before rltoving onto the ne-xt 'l'his isolated at a ti nre clctes li'irtr I rc. ¡rtesen tation and practice ofone stl'uctllre rvith an opportuniry to discover horv diFferent langr.rage nor l)rovidc learners li'irtLrrcs cotnPare and contrast in nornral langr'rage use. So¡lc strLtcture,basecl approeches to reaching a#spinians li $[ 167
  • 5. lñitl l'opuhr irluu dhout ltn¡¡utgc le,trnin,q:Jhct rttttl opirtious l0 srr.lr rr Popular idens ,tbout hngu.age learning: /icts and apinio*t 'fcachers sl¡ottld use rnaterilzk that expose studenb o:b *.ngurtge snuctures ubich thiy haue alrendy been taught rr ¡r'.ccd.r'c crlr ¡rror.iclc conrprehensible i'put uf Loursc, bur-gi,,cr.l rt'ir rr irrgf:rrl c.'tex r-le arn.., .",-, .o,'prehend th. g.'"."r (iroup tvclrk is l virltur[tlc lrltlition to rlre virricry of::rcrivirics ivhich cncourage l'tJ promorc second lrrntr,r¡gc tlcvt'1.¡rrrrcrrr. usccl i. conlbinarion wiih inclivicltrrl norli and rr'rrclrcrr.ccrrtrctl rrcrir itics, ir ¡:lrr¡,s rrn iruporrrnt rolc i* communicative langLurge reachi n g. J I2 oi-",ry lir¡'r¡rs wlrich rhcy cerrai.ly have nor'n,nrt.r.d'^ndlind..d, ,rr"rl ,,?r- n..' . p',clucccl 'l'htrs, rcstricri'g ,rr."r.rirrg classroon-r second language materials to Clearl¡ second learners can onlv lcarn rlic larrgul¡¡c rhcl,rrrc cx¡:ro.sctl c¿ise rhat srudenrs lcarrr cvclyrh irrg rlrcy,rrc r:rrrelrr or tha¡.rhev cvenrually knorv onlv whrrr rhcy arc raLrghr. ,S.rrrc rceclrinq nrethods rvpicallv give learner.s the op¡rorruniry ro lcar,., only,r vcry r.csrricrci number of w,ords and senrencc ty¡-rcs. Evcn whcn tlrc lrrngrrrrgc tc:rcl.rin¡¡ those rvlrich c:orrrri'lirrlc or.r'toihi,.rg which is,-,..,,',.,Iy ñ"u" r.u.r"l ,.,.g",ir,. ( o's('([rcrccs. 'l-hcre rvill uncloubredly be a loss of nioriva,ion if ,r.,d.,r-r, n,. rr. t srrJlic'ic. tly challe ngcd. St,r.l.,r rs aiso ne e d ro dcal wirh .re al, or to. But it ,aurhe rliltr'i.l if'rhcy l.e cvenrLrrllv goirg to bc prcparccl fbr language ,;;;,,;;i;" 'ric, tlr. elrrss.rorlr. Thcy do ¡his firsr'*'irh ihe'reach..t g,,ía",I.. ;;á:;;;, irtlc¡rc.clc'rly. Resrrictinq sc.dcrts cr t t'ncls wllc' their dcper.rdengr ro srep-by-srep "*pnr'ur. ro rrre ranguagc Other aspccrs ofla'gLra*e, horvc'cr, fbr cr:rnrple , vocabuhrl,, can be raughrat , as long as rlie learners:rre intcrcsred in thc op¡rolruniry to lcanr and the reachi'g nrethods are appropri:rrc rc¡ rhe lcrrrrcr'.s agc, i'rcresm. enri Iearning srylcs. Fortunarell', resc:rrclr has also shown that lcarncrs crrn lc¡rrn:r great dcal rhilr no-one eYer reaches tlrem.'fhcy are able ro use rheir orv¡r i.tcrnal lcar'irrg mech¿rnisnrs ro discor.t'r nra.y of thc cor'plex rr¡lcs ¡¡¡d lclerionships rvhich unclcrlie rhc l:rrrguage thcy wi.sh ro leern. Sruclcnrs, in rtrris scnsc, nray bc slrid to lcarn rnuch rrrorc thrn rl-rcy arc rlr.rglrr. ..*",r",b.. Á!, any time cerrainly are which thcy ha'e nor maste red. I I Wten learners are alloued to interactfreely (.br example, in {orrp or"prtir actiritiil, íhey learn eac h o tl¡ers' mis ta/zis 'l lrt'r'c qo<,rl is c'idcrce rh:rr, ilrhc tasks are weil dcsiencd, rcarncrs rvorking i' llr()tps gcr fhr r.rorc p*crice in speaki.g and ¡xrtici¡raring i' co'r.ers,rrio,ri in ¡1,,r¡r rv.rli rh:rn thcy ci,cr co.ld ir., a rcrcl-,"r-..ntrJd .lrrr. sonrervll:rr Conclusion srrrprisirrrily', rhe rese;rrch has arso shorvn th¿rt rearners do not rlrrc.crr.rs.irr rheir spcech rvhen tarki'g ro lcarners ar ";ry simira,. rerers of than they do when speaki'g to lea¡ne¡s ar more l)rohcre'cy advanced levels or tr narivc speakers. This research sño.us, horvever, rhar learners at simirar "rso lcvcls ca.nnor provide each other wirh informario. which *o,rld corrccr rho.se e¡rors. some orher studies show rhar rasks can be devised i,, l wa1'thar lea*ers rvorkirrg rogethcr can triscover pr;¡;." I(norving ¡'.re abour scco.d la'g.:rt¡c:rcquisiri.rr rcsc;rrch will ¡l.t rc!l you Wc lropc, lr.u,cvcr, what to do in yóur clas.sroom romorr)w rhar rbis 'rorrri'g. book has provided y<lu *'ith infr¡rnrrtion *'hich crcourages you r. reflccr an your cxpcrience i. rcaching. Wc h<rpc, in:rddirion, rl.tai rl.,ls rcflccrion rvitl conrribure to a berter undersrandi'g ofyour rcsponsibilities as a teacher a¡rd t.i; ; iu.i i.formarion ., k";-;i;;; know they h.d- i; ;rd., t;;,;:; :rbour rhc' sccond languagi rhcy didrii happen' the rasks lnusr be carefully plarned and dre learners musr have access to the correct.language forms rhey ar. trying ro discover. l:ir-rgr,ragc certainly not rhe acco¡cling to'n¿rtural'sequences of clcvclo¡rmt-nr lnrl leerncr-u nla1,t-.- rnoro likcly to learn cerrair lar-rguagc fc.rr'rrcs rvhcn rhcy :rre clcvcloPr'cntally '¡eady'. Thus, artenrprs to tcaclr :lspccrs of'langr-ragc which rrre ru, l*.,.,r.,rt, fl',r'r the lcarncr's clrrrcrr stagc of clc'elopme'r lvill u.su¡llv bc frustratilrg. pir'ricr"rlar fornl is i'troducccl for ¡he firsr time, or when rhe reacher li'cls rhcrc is a need for correcrionof a persisre'r proble nr, i, ir.pf;;;;;;'; rrsc nrrn'orv-focus m¿rtcrials rvhich isolatc or-r. in a conrext rvhere "lan-,"n, thirgs s.cern easy. Bur ir would bc a rlisservice ro srudellts 'tlrcr ro use suclr r('rUncrs rvrro successfrrlly accltrire E.nglish outside classroo¡r-ls cx¡ruscci ro :r varier¡, of for'ls rnd ,r.u.iur., is rrerhod provides rnr-rch richer language inpur, the fhcr rlrar s.nrcthi.g is tlught ol made avriil:rble in rhe i,-,pi,t J,r.s ,rn, ,.,-.,.",, le¿rrnci-.s,uill *ct¡rri.c ir lieht awa¡ For exanrple, somc aspr:crs of: thc second larneulge cir:vcl*p ir rru(cli:rls cxclusi'ely-o_r eve' predonrinanrry. we should Students learn tuhat they nre taugbt those of¡.our studenrs as language lcnr¡rcrs. As n e havc seen, language learning are the personal characteristics 1 & e K i* $ fr d by rn:rny l-acrors. Among rhesc lcarncr, rhc structure ofrhe native and is aFfl'crcd ofthc target languages, opporruniries for intcr¡crion with speakers of the rargct language, and access ro correcrion and fornr-foct¡sed insrruction. k is clear that te¿chers do not have conrrol ovcr all these flcrors. However, a bener 169
  • 6. I 70 Popular itleas nbout latryuage learning: facts and opinions undersranding of them will permit teachers and learners to make the most of twin processes of reachir-rg ancl learr-ring a GLOSSARY rhe rirne rhey spend rogerher in the second language. we have included in this gloss:iry o'ly rh.sc irc¡'s rvhiclr llrrvc . spccial or technical meaning in seco'd lang.ragc acquisitio' rcscur.ch ,¡ncl seco,rcl language teaching. The dcfiniriotrr .r" ir'rr",',d.cr ro r.cflccr (hc rcr¡us tt! ,.v Hre themin this book. other rvrircrs may give difrerenr i.rcrprcrrrrirrrs ro s'nlc of the m. As a rule , we have not inciudcd rvorcls fbl rvlrich cle.flnitiorrs crrrr rcu<lily be found in a dictionary (for exaniple, inrerlocuror, cnrpir.ic:rl). acnrracyorder:The rehtive a^ccuracyofgrarrrmatical fbr.rlrs ir lcrrr.¡lcrllnqurrl;c. For example, learners arc ofren mole accurare in usinq plural-.r tlrlrr iritrsi,lg possessive - i'. Some researche¡s h¡ve inferred rh:¡r ¡n tccLrr-acy orclcr. is cqu ir.alqrr to a seqLlence of acquisition. A¡nerican sign Language (ASL):l.'he gestr-rral language used lry r.'a'y i,lorth Amcricans who are de: F,.r rvho i¡rteract with dcaf pcrsons. It is a ,..c llr.Er¡:Ulc, with complex rules of strrrcrure and a rich vocalrul:rrr,, all rnotions of rhe hands and bodv. exprcs.sccl ,n ".,!n a.udiolingual approac/t; Audiolingrral tcaching is based on rhe beh¿t,isarist theory of leerning and or., st,,rctural linguistiJs. This i'struction:rl approach emph:rsizes the formatio' of hab¡its th*rirgh thc ¡rractice, n.,cnroriiarior" ancl rcpctirion oFgrammarical structures in isolatio¡ frorl each othcr arrd fionr contcxts of rneaningful use . behluiourism:A psychological thcory thar all lcarni¡re, ruhcrhcr verb¿l or norrverbal, takcs place rhrough thc e.srrblishmc¡rr of hrbiis. Accordi'g t' tlris vicw, rvhr' Iclrncrs inritarc encl rcpcrrt rlrcla'guegc thcy hcer i, the iriLrrrourrtli'g cnvironnlenr rnd arc ¡rosirivcll rcinfirrccd for rloing so, h:r[rit for.rn:rrion (or lc,rlrrirr¡i) ocLurs. c lti k/-d ircrted spccch :'ll-tc lartgu;rrc whiclr c¡rrctakcrs addrcss ro chiklrcn. ln some cflses, this language is sinrpler than that which is addrcssccl ro aclrrl¡s rnd also may involve slorv'er spcech, nrore rcpetition, ¿rnd a largc ¡runrhcr ol qucsrions. cl¿ssroom abse,uarion scl?e me: A rool (ofte n in the form of a grid) rvhich cor¡$ilil.r ofaset ofpredetermined caregories to describe reachingand Éarningbchaviours. tognitiue watu"iry: T-hc abiliry ro engage complex memory rasks. problcnr-solving, dcducrion. lrrd

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