Policybrief 35: A truly green agricultural revolution is needed
World food prices have more than doubled over the pastdecade, reaching record highs (figure). Higher food priceshave made food less affordable to many. The number of peoplewith insufficient access to food reached one billion in 2010.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Policybrief 35: A truly green agricultural revolution is needed
UN-DESA Policy Brief No. 35A truly green agricultural revolution is neededW orld food prices have more than doubled over the past decade, reaching record highs (figure). Higher food priceshave made food less affordable to many. The number of people 400 Figure Real food price indices, annual averages, 1990-2011 Index: 2002-2004 = 100 Food price indexwith insufficient access to food reached one billion in 2010. Meat price index 350 Dairy price index The recent food price spikes have exposed deep structural Cereals price indexflaws in the world food system. Although increased financial 300 Oils price index Sugar price indexspeculation in commodity futures and options markets seems 250to have amplified short-term price volatility, medium-term foodprice trends mainly reflect structural imbalances in food demand 200and supply. Demand for food has risen owing to continued ris- 150ing demand (including for biofuels) and supply constraints. Agricultural output has not kept pace with growing de- 100mand owing to competition for land, increased intensity of 50droughts and floods, reduced public funding for food and ag-ricultural infrastructure, research and extension as well as price 0supports. In earlier decades as food prices declined, national 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011food security policies had been increasingly abandoned in favour Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available from http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/wfs-home/foodpricesindex/en.of greater reliance on global food markets. Meanwhile, food production has been recognized as a A truly green revolution is needed, to ensure food secu-major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution rity using farming techniques that are more productive, sociallyand land degradation. Ensuring food security in a sustainable inclusive and environmentally sustainable. As elaborated in themanner will require a major overhaul of farming practices and United Nations publication World Economic and Social Surveytechnologies. 2011 (WESS 2011), there is an urgent need for rapid diffusion of sustainable agricultural technology and practices in both de-Towards a truly green revolution… veloped and developing countries. In most developing countries, small-scale farming willIt will be necessary to increase food production by between 70and 100 per cent by mid-century to feed a forecasted future have to be at the centre of the technological transformation. Thispopulation of 9 billion people. This will require nothing short of transformation will involve consolidation of production activi-a technological revolution to greatly increase food production. ties to reach efficient scale appropriate to the crop and region. Small farmers are currently the mainstay of food production in Valuable lessons can be learnt from the ‘‘Green Revolution’’ most developing countries. Between 75 and 90 per cent of stapleof the 1960s and 1970s in Asia and Latin America. That effort foods in developing countries are produced and consumed lo-involved the adoption of a specific package of technologies—namely, higher-yielding varieties of wheat, rice and maize, chemi- cally. Almost 90 per cent of all farmers in developing countriescal fertilizers, and irrigation—and brought about dramatic in- cultivate plots of two hectares or less.creases in productivity and production of some staple food crops. Increasing farm productivity would not only directly en- However, the green revolution failed in two major ways. hance food security, but also contribute to poverty reduction byFirst, it failed to enhance the food security of many of the world’s raising farm incomes, thus freeing labour resources for off-farmpoor, as it largely bypassed food crops consumed in Africa in industry and services. Small-scale farming, with diversified cropparticular, and did not respond to the agro-ecological conditions cultivation, has several advantages over large-scale monocultureof a large number of farmers. systems. There is strong evidence that for some crops, small scale Second, the original green revolution, in most instances, production is more efficient than large scale and also less damag-led to excessive and inappropriate use of fertilizers, pollution of ing for the environment.waterways due to greater siltation and the intensive use of chem- However, these advantages can only be realized in full ificals, and biodiversity loss. Agriculture produces 14 per cent of smallholders have adequate access to rural infrastructure (likeglobal greenhouse gas emissions thus contributing greatly to cli- irrigation and roads), affordable credit and farm inputs (likemate change. quality seeds, fertilizers and pesticides), weather insurance, andJune 2011 United Nations D epar tment of Economic and S ocial Affairs 1
education. Such conditions are also required for successful adop- Effective agricultural research also demands closer collabo-tion of sustainable farming techniques. ration among public research institutions, the private sector and small farmers through innovative partnerships, includingWhat is to be done? patent buyouts, prizes, joint ventures, co-financing and advance- purchase agreements, comprehensive risk assessments andGovernments have to facilitate the widespread dissemination, suitable regulatory schemes.adaptation and adoption of technology and innovations toincrease the productivity, profitability, resilience and climate Increased awareness and the accelerated adoption of sus-change mitigation potential of rural production systems. tainable technology and crop management practices will also require wider dissemination of information and information & Successful localized productivity-enhancing innovations communications (ICT) technology among small-scale farmerscan be built upon. Such innovations were often responses to through quality education in rural areas (including adult literacydroughts or floods, and have resulted in improved pest and weed and innovative peer-to-peer learning programmes) and adequatemanagement, water efficiency and biodiversity. extension services. The policy challenge is to identify and support the adapta- Making sustainable food agriculture technologies avail-tion and scaling-up of such local instances of agricultural innova- able to small-scale farmers in diverse agro-climatic conditionstion, including in poor and food insecure countries and regions. requires further substantial investments in rural infrastructure,Agro-ecological conditions vary widely across regions, implying including roads, irrigation, electricity and storage facilities.that agricultural technologies and practices, including the appro- This should be complemented by measures to improvepriate farm size, need to be adapted to local conditions. market access—including better access to credit, inputs and in- An extensive menu of technologies and sustainable prac- surance—for small-scale farmers, as well as improved access totices in agriculture is available providing options for a radical land for rent and secure property rights.shift towards sustainable food security. These include traditional On the whole, a strategic attention to agriculture as part ofknowledge and farming practices such as low-tillage farming, national development strategies would improve policy coordina-crop rotation and inter-planting, green manure utilization, water tion and give greater coherence to the actions of the many actorsharvesting and water-efficient cropping. who are part of national food systems. Furthermore, new high-yielding and pest and disease-resistant varieties of food crops have and are being developed, International actionwhich are efficient in water use and require little or no use of The international community has much to contribute to a globalagro-chemicals as fertilizers or pesticides—unlike their predeces- agenda for food security and environmental sustainability. De-sors developed in the 1960s and 1970s. More research is needed, livering on the financial pledges made in the aftermath of thehowever, to adapt these technologies to local conditions. food crisis of 2007-2008 would constitute an important down Finally, modern biotechnology and hydroponics provide payment on eradicating hunger.complementary options to raise productivity with sustainable International action is also needed to reform agriculturalproduction methods. While much knowledge is already avail- subsidies in OECD countries, which undermine the ability ofable, governments will have to provide more incentives and sup- farmers in developing countries to compete. This includes re-port to make them and new knowledge accessible, adaptable and thinking subsidies to biofuels, and support for new biofuels toaffordable to farmers. reduce the diversion of food production for such ends. Recon- stituting global, regional and national capacities for agriculturalNational responses R&D with international financial support can rapidly improveThe transformation of agriculture to achieve sustainable food agricultural productivity.nsecurity requires long-term support by governments and otheractors through: (i) substantially increased funds for agricul- Prepared by:tural research and development (R&D); (ii) enhanced capacity Diana Alarcon, Christina Bodouroglou,development among farmers; (iii) better rural infrastructure; Manuel F. Montes and Rob Vos(iv) improved market access; and (v) redistributive land andagrarian reforms. For further information please contact: Resources for agricultural research remain low, especially Rob Vos, Director, Development Policy and Analysis Divisionin Africa, East and South-East Asia and the Middle East. The Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Rm. DC2-2020intensification of research efforts to breed new crops, and the United Nations, New York, NY 10017, U.S.A. Tel: +1 212 963-4838 • Fax: +1 212 963-1061development and adaptation of the new technology to increase e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org food production require significant long-term public http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/index.shtmland private funding of agricultural R&D.2 United Nations D epar tment of Economic and S ocial Affairs June 2011