Published on: Mar 5, 2016
Transcripts - Nada p1
A scientific theory is what some might say is the nucleus of science.
It can be defined as a “A well confirmed hypothesis that explains a
large body of facts and which has inspired a large body of research”.
The process that an observation turns into a scientific theory is a long
and thorough one. There are four main steps and it starts off with an
Have you ever observed something you thought was
strange? Agatha Chrsitie famously said “Everything must be
taken into account. If the fact will not fit the theory, let
the theory go”.
Darwin’s theory of evolution was inspired by the
observations he made on the Beagle Voyage about the
similarity of Galapagos wildlife to that on the South
A scientific observation has to be observable by another
human and have similar results. This is because human’s
senses such as sight are subjective and unique to everyone.
Anyone could make an error when looking at things like an
optical illusion. This is part of the reason why scientific
instruments such as cameras were developed.
The next step in developing a scientific theory is Hypothesizing.
Oxford dictionary defines a hypothesis as “A supposition or proposed
explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting
point for further investigation.”
Charles Darwin’s hypothesis was "Species originated by means of
natural selection, or through the preservation of the favoured races
in the struggle for life."
A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is generally accepted as a
basis for further research with the hope that eventually an
acknowledged science theory will be produced.
The purpose of testing a hypotheses is to determine
whether observations of the real will agree with or conflict with the
predictions derived from an hypothesis. But agreement does not
mean the hypothesis is 100% true, just provides further evidence.
George Mendel tested Darwin's hypothesis through plant breeding
experiments between 1856 and 1863, he discovered that there is a
recombination of parental traits in offspring. Sadly, Darwin and
most other 19th century biologists never knew of Mendel and his
Experiments should be designed to minimize possible errors,
especially through the use of appropriate scientific controls. For
example, Mendels tests were essentially double-blind tests as plants
aren’t biased. Other scientists need to also test and analyse for no
bias (Peer review). Other kinds of test include random and blind.
The last stage is creating a conclusion. Conclusions can be drawn
when all the of the previous stages have been fully completed.
“Based on the conclusions drawn from the data, the researcher will
then find more evidence to support their hypothesis, look for
counter-evidence to further strengthen their hypothesis, revise
their hypothesis and create a new experiment, or continue to
incorporate the information gathered to answer the research