National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National policies-for-creative-industries-quickscan-1
© EURICUR 2007
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Background of the research
The Dutch Government has commissioned a quick scan of explicit national policies for creative
industries. This explorative international comparative study focuses on policies aiming to
stimulate economic development of creative industries. It is concerned with tailor-made policies
for creative industries, dedicated policies for its sub-sectors and explicit attention for creative
industries in standard economic policies.
The investigation includes examples from Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea,
Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The examples also come from
regions for Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany and Spain. For the quick scan
approximately 1000 policies have been examined in 18 countries.
Creative industries comprise three groups: arts (performing arts, visual arts and photography,
cultural events, etc.), media and entertainment (film, audiovisual sector, literature and journalism
etc.), and creative business services (design, fashion, architecture, new media and gaming,
The quick scan considers the following mainstream economic policies that are used for creative
Stimulating innovation in creative industries;
Promoting entrepreneurship in creative industries;
Supporting creative entrepreneurs to get access to venture capital;
Market development: facilitating creative entrepreneurs to develop their markets at
home but especially abroad;
Fostering the development of creative clusters;
Safeguarding intellectual property rights to encourage creativity and assure rewards to
Other policies that stimulate economic development in creative industries but do not fit
in the adopted classification.
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The quick scan shows that the awareness of the economic potential of creative industries is
rising. Many countries have commissioned studies into the economic impact of creative
industries since the first Creative Industry Mapping Document published in the United Kingdom
in 1998. Both economic and cultural policymakers have been involved in those studies. In some
other countries the national attention for the economic potential of creative industries is also
A key question is: are creative industries primarily the subject of economic or cultural policy?
The explorative study shows that national governments consider it to be both. The most
interesting policies combine cultural objectives (diversity, quality and distribution) and
economic objectives (innovation, entrepreneurship, export, investment, clustering and economic
growth). The policy schemes included in the research indicate that the majority of policies
stimulating the economic development of creative industries originate from, and are funded by,
the cultural sectors. The awareness of its economic potential has increased but it has not resulted
in an appropriate balance between mainstream economic policy and cultural policy.
The majority of countries in the investigation do not have a comprehensive national strategy for
creative industries. Nonetheless, the number of countries with an integrated national strategy for
creative industries is growing. Most of the countries in the research have integrated strategies for
sub-sectors of creative industries (such as design, audiovisual, media and gaming).
Of course, creative industries are not excluded from generic economic policies but it appears to
be difficult to meet the criteria to qualify for support for these policies.
An explicit strategy for creative industries also raises the issue of priorities. In some cases,
economic policies focus more on creation whereas other countries prioritise distribution. Most
countries though have explicit policies for creation and production on the one hand and for
distribution on the other. Generally speaking, the latter is better integrated in standard economic
policies than the first.
10. Increasingly, the delivery of the policies for creative industries, as well as for policies aiming to
stimulate sub-sectors, are put in the hand of arm’s length organisations. These organisations are
funded from various public sources. These organisations give account for their activities to the
Ministries involved. In some cases, special workgroups with representatives of Ministries and
other public stakeholders supervise the national strategy.
11. What is the role of national governments in the policies for creative industries? What should be
done locally and what nationally? There is no unambiguous answer to this question. It depends
very much on the type of policies. The national level is leading for international market
development, venture capital schemes and copyright policies (in relation to supranational
policies). Local and regional governments are leading in creative cluster policies and
entrepreneurship. Innovation policies give a mixed picture as all levels of government are
strongly involved. Nevertheless, national governments are in charge of the most important
innovation policy schemes.
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12. Innovation, entrepreneurship and market development are the most popular economic policies
for creative industries. Venture capital becomes more important but is not in the same league.
13. Standard innovation policies mainly deal with technological innovation but sometimes also with
non-technological innovation. The latter is particularly important for creative industries.
14. Most of the selected countries and regions have developed special policies promoting innovation
in creative industries. Several different and interactive trends have emerged within innovation
policy. Many national governments are developing policies and schemes to create and foster
networking, creative partnerships and collaborative strategies among different sectors and actors,
and among different disciplines as a way to affect and stimulate innovation. R&D, both
technological and non-technological, has emerged as a key strategy to develop a strong creative
sector and develop innovative projects. R&D schemes and funds are being set up to foster
projects at the intersection between cultural and business sectors to encourage specific creative
disciplines that are critical to the national cultural development, or to make a better use of
promising technology. The majority of the initiatives in this area are mainly directed to the
creation/production phase. Specific policies for sub-sectors are present; the majority can be
found in design, film and game.
15. In some of the countries, policymakers do not see the need for special policies for creative
industries and creative entrepreneurs are treated just like any other entrepreneur. However, the
overall picture is that most of the selected countries and regions have developed special policies
promoting entrepreneurship for creative industries. The majority of these initiatives are
developed in partnerships involving government departments, traditional cultural institutions,
(higher) educational institutions and specialised agencies for (branches of) the creative
industries. Popular policies for creative entrepreneurship are special training programmes,
financing the use of specialist consultancy services, workshops for creative entrepreneurs,
special scholarships and leadership programmes. Most countries have special policies to
facilitate international market development for creative industries. It is also clear that there is a
trend to incorporate the creative industries in traditional economic export promotion. Generally
speaking, the approach to creative industries is not fundamentally different from other selected
sectors for international market development. The differences lie in the adaptations to the
specific circumstances of creative industries. Usually, representatives of creative industries are
involved in fine-tuning of the policies for their industry. At the same time broad strategies for
market development in creative industries have also come from the field of culture and
education. However, the majority of policies are tailored to (a group of) specific sub-sectors.
Other specific trends are the policies to promote gaming as an export sector and the role of
design as an export tool for other sectors.
16. Few countries have developed policies to raise opportunities for creative industries regarding
access to venture capital. The general picture is that it is not a problem of availability of funding
in general, but the selected policies address the access to funding together with improving
entrepreneurship in creative industries. For example, efforts are made to raise awareness within
banks and financial institutions on the commercial potential and investment opportunities in
creative industries. Specific policies for sub-sectors are predominant. Creative industries have
recently started to apply also to funds for general industries (e.g. start-up funds, technology
funds, etc.). However, the research indicates that establishing links between creative industries,
venture capital funds and other capital funds and business networks could be improved.
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17. Promoting the development of economic clusters is fashionable in economic policies. The idea
behind the development of creative clusters is that cultural industries have strong place-bound
characteristics, relying on local production networks. Creative clusters are usually developed and
initiated by local or regional governments through public-private partnerships. However, a
growing number of national governments recognise the importance to promote and foster the
development of creative clusters. National creative cluster policies are mainly part of the
national industrial strategy aiming at the creation of innovation or competitive clusters. The main
trend emerging at national level is the development of creative clusters fostering innovation
through strong links between art, new media and technology, education and businesses. The
creative cluster policies are therefore strongly linked to innovation and entrepreneurship policies.
18. In recent years intellectual property rights laws have become stronger. In general, the powers of
the national authorities in this field are limited. Some OECD countries have extended the
duration of copyright. Artist’s Resale Right (droit de suite) is now regulated in several countries
in Europe. In December 1996, more than hundred countries adopted the WIPO Copyright Treaty
and the WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty with the aim to adapt existing international
copyright conventions to digital technology. In accordance to the WIPO Treaties, European
countries have implemented or are implementing the EU Directive concerning the
Harmonisation of Particular Aspects of the Copyright and Related Rights in the Information
Society (Directive 2001/29/CE). The main challenges intellectual copyright is facing come from
the processes of digitalisation of cultural products and their distribution via internet: stimulus to
creation and protection versus diffusion. A new and fair use of intellectual property is being
promoted, allowing exceptions for the utilisation of information for educational or cultural
purposes, the promotion of innovation, and R&D activities. New alternatives to licensing within
existing intellectual property right legislation have emerged, like the well known example of
19. In the category of other relevant policies, the international cooperation of the Nordic countries
and the Baltic States is very interesting. It is unique in its kind and could lead to important
lessons for other EU-members.
20. A question that emerges from the international quick scan of policies for creative industries is:
what is the role of the European Union? Including the creative industries in the Lisbon strategy
is one, but will the European Union stimulate inventive economic policies for creative
21. Finally, what are the lessons from the research for countries that want to set up a national policy
scheme to stimulate creative industries? The examples have certainly raised many questions
about the applicability for nations that are exploring their possibilities. It depends very much on
the cultural, economic and administrative context. There is no standard recipe but each country
that aspires to develop national creative industries policies needs to answer critical questions
What is the economic impact of creative industries and what are key strengths of
What are crucial elements in a national strategic framework for creative industries?
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What is to be preferred: a generic economic policy with the assumption that it caters for
the creative industries versus special policy schemes for creative industries or its subsectors?
What sub-sectors should be prioritised?
How to integrate explicit policies for (parts of) creative industries in both mainstream
economic policies and cultural policies?
What is the best way to deliver these policies?
How to evaluate these policies aiming for economic and cultural objectives?
There are no clear-cut answers to these questions as explicit policies for creative industries are a
relatively new phenomenon. However, the questions could stimulate the national debate on
creative industries and it could also energise the exchange of experiences on the European level.
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Table of contents
Executive Summary ......................................................................................................................................i
Table of contents ........................................................................................................................................vii
Creative industries .............................................................................................................................3
National policies for creative industries ............................................................................................9
General trends in policies ................................................................................................................13
Access to venture capital .................................................................................................................37
Market development ........................................................................................................................41
Creative clusters ..............................................................................................................................49
Intellectual property rights...............................................................................................................53
Final conclusions and remarks.........................................................................................................61
References for national policies .................................................................................................................63
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The report at hand charts and compares explicit national policies for creative industries in seventeen
developed countries. The purpose of the study is to present a selection of interesting policies to a broader
Dutch and European audience that could be another impulse to the debate on creative industries both in
the Netherlands and the European Union. The explorative study has been carried out by the European
Institute for Comparative Urban Research (EURICUR) of Erasmus University Rotterdam on the
invitation of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of the Netherlands.
The research has been supervised by a committee composed of Bart Hofstede (Ministry of Education,
Culture and Science), Jasper Kraaijeveld (Ministry of Economic Affairs) and Ron Reeder (Ministry of
Education, Culture and Science). The EURICUR research team thanks the members of the supervisory
committee for their co-operativeness and constructive contribution to the research. We also like to thank
Yolanda van Heese (Ministry of Economic Affairs) for her comments on the draft report.
We have worked on this international comparative quick scan of explicit national policies for creative
industries from December 2006 to May 2007. It has been a challenging and sometimes demanding
research project as the number policies to be considered seemed infinite. Nevertheless, we have work on
it with great pleasure and enthusiasm. Our special thanks go to our dedicated student assistants: Juliana
Salazar and Arzu Uraz. We could not have completed the study without their help. We would also like to
thank Christian Berger, Anass Selmani and Luís Carvalho for their support.
Finally, we would like to thank all those persons across Europe and elsewhere that responded to our
questions and requests for information. It would not have been possible to complete the study in time
without their quick response, professional comments and advice.
Rotterdam, May 2007
Erik Braun & Mariangela Lavanga
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Since the late 1990s the interest in creative industries has been growing worldwide. The Dutch
Government issued a so-called ‘Mapping Document’ on creative industries in The Netherlands in June
20051. The Mapping Document is the synthesis of a substantial research project initiated by the Dutch
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science and the Ministry of Economic Affairs. The Mapping
Document is based a on a range of research reports dealing with the definition of creative industries,
assessing its economic impact in The Netherlands, identifying bottlenecks in creative production and
exploring the role of (national) government.
The abovementioned research project is the result of the national debate on the importance of creative
industries. More importantly, it is accompanied by the first strategy to boost the economic utilisation of
culture and creativity in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has launched an experimental
programme for creative industries to make the most of the economic potential of culture (including the
Creative Challenge Call).
At the European level, the first ever study on the economy of culture in Europe (The Economy of Culture
in Europe, 20062) is a milestone in raising the awareness of the links between economy and culture. This
study initiated by the European Commission reveals the direct as well as indirect contribution of the
cultural and creative sectors towards the competitiveness of the European Union.
The Dutch Government has commissioned an international quick scan into explicit national policies for
creative industries. The international comparative explorative study focuses on policies aiming to
stimulate the economic development of creative industries. What policies have been developed for
creative industries in Europe and elsewhere? What are the objectives, how does it work and what are the
motives behind these policies? What are the trends and recent developments and what policies are
interesting for a wider Dutch and European audience?
It is important to note that the present research is a quick scan: an explorative study into best practices for
national policies towards creative industries. It does not intend to map all the policies for creative
industries in Europe and in other developed regions of the world. In our investigation we have included
examples from: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, New
Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands and the United
Kingdom. The selection has been made from ‘developed countries’ - most of the countries are OECD
Raes, S.E.P. and B.P. Hofstede (2005) (eds.) Creativiteit in kaart gebracht. Mapping document creatieve
bedrijvigheid in Nederland. Joint publication of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science and the Ministry of
The study into the Economy of Culture has been carried out by KEA European Affairs working together with Media
Group (Turku School of Economics) and MKW Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH.
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members. Also, the information on the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe website3
has been used for a first selection. Other important selection criteria have been the awareness of creative
industries, the explicit national policies for creative industries and the reputation as leading countries with
regard to national policies for creative industries.
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada and Germany are federations. Officially, Spain is not a federation,
but its administrative organisation gives considerable power to the regions. For these countries, we have
selected interesting regions in terms of policies for creative industries: Australian Capital Territory, New
South Wales, and Western Australia (Australia), Vienna (Austria), Flanders (Belgium), Quebec, Ontario
and British Columbia (Canada), Catalonia (Spain) and North Rhine Westphalia (Germany).
Notwithstanding the limitations mentioned above, we have examined more than 1000 policies in 18
countries assessing the objectives, instruments, delivery and organisation. Naturally, the selection of
policies included in this quick scan is related to the selection of countries. The quick scan comprises
contemporary policies with an economic rationale and assessment of those policies in the selected
countries. The study is not an independent evaluation of each of these policies. It brings the reader up to
date with the trends in national policies for creative industries and it highlight examples of policies from
the selected countries that are interesting for a wider audience. The boxes on interesting policies
summarise their objectives, motives, instruments and results (if available).
The structure of the report is as follows: in the next section (2) we discuss creative industries, its
definitions and our use of the concept in this comparative study. In section 3 we discuss the national
policies aiming to stimulate the economic development of creative industries that are included in the
research. Section 4 comprises the most important general observations concerning all the policies for
creative industries. Sections 5 to 11 discuss trends, developments and best practices for each of the
selected policy areas. Section 12 contains the final conclusions.
Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe website www.culturalpolicies.net.
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The study at hand does not intend to replicate the work done for the Dutch Mapping Document, nor the
report on the economy of culture in Europe. It is certainly not the objective to review all possible
definitions of creative industries. However, we cannot neglect the international debate on this subject
entirely as it affects the international comparison.
The notion of creative industries emerged in the 1990s. It really took off with the launch of the interdepartmental Creative Industries Taskforce in the UK in 1997. The Taskforce’s first report included a
definition for creative industries that is still relatively popular: “activities which have their origin in
individual creativity skill and talent and which have the potential for wealth and job creation through the
generation and exploitation of intellectual property”4.
Notwithstanding the relative popularity of the concept produced by the UK’s Creative Industries
Taskforce, we cannot label it as the internationally accepted definition of creative industries as there are
many other definitions. Furthermore, the definition of the Creative Industries Taskforce is also criticised
for being incoherent and vague and for not complying with standard economic practice in defining
industries and sectors. There is also considerable criticism stating that the definition including 13 sectors
is too broad5. For example, commentators question the inclusion of advertisement or software
development as a whole. Other commentators point to activities that in their opinion should have been
included, but are not, such as cultural tourism.
The discussion on the definition of the UK’s Creative Industries Taskforce illustrates part of the debate
that is now going on in many countries concerning creative industries: what to include and what not? The
reality is that there are many definitions used by academics and policymakers, some are broader and
others are more narrowly defined. The reality is also that there are many countries, policy documents and
literature that use the term creative industries without clearly defining it and without transparency in the
use of data to measure and compare them.
A final remark that should be made concerning definitions is that for some researchers and policymakers,
the creative industries and the cultural industries are the same. For example, authors such as
Hesmondhalgh & Pratt (2005)6 see creative industries as a more popular synonym for cultural industries.
Others distinguish between the two and see a development from cultural industries into creative industries
(Cunningham, 2002)7. This variety, or ambiguity if you will, concerning the description of creative
See also the DCMS website www.culture.gov.uk.
Architecture, advertisement, arts and arts fairs, crafts, design, fashion, film, interactive entertainment software (such
as gaming), television and radio, performing arts, publishers and software
Hesmondhalgh, D. and A. Pratt (2005) Cultural industries and cultural policy. International Journal of Cultural
Policy, 11 (1): 1-13.
Cunningham (2002) From culture to creative industries: theory, industry and policy implications. Media
International Australia, Incorporating Culture & Policy, 102: 54-65.
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industries undoubtedly makes our international comparative study more difficult. Nevertheless, it is by no
means an impediment as we look for international best practices.
At the European level the debate on creative industries started only recently. When the EU Heads of State
and Government met in March 2000 at the European Council in Lisbon they agreed on the ambitious goal
of making Europe by 2010 “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world,
capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion”. However
the role of the cultural and creative industries within the Lisbon Agenda (2000) was still largely ignored.
The main focus was on the ICT industries.
Following the increasing international debate on cultural industries, the European Parliament made a
specific request in 2003 to the Commission to identify priority actions to promote cultural industries and
to examine whether it is possible to draw up a definition for cultural and creative industries (European
Parliament, European Parliament Resolution on Cultural Industries, 2003). The European Parliament
asked the Commission to elaborate a study in order to create a European map of cultural industries. The
European Parliament Resolution on Cultural Industries (2003) stressed the need of developing European
indicators on cultural industries, bringing Eurostat cultural industries statistics in line with international
standards and gathering data on employment, intellectual property rights, etc.
As mentioned in the introduction, the first official EU-study on the economy of culture in Europe was
prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture). The study is the
first attempt to capture the direct and indirect socio-economic impact of the cultural sector in Europe, and
at the same time assessing its contribution to the Lisbon agenda, in particular in terms of growth,
competitiveness, jobs, sustainable development, and innovation (KEA, The Economy of Culture in
Europe, 2006). Recently, the Council of the European Union decided to integrate creative industries into
the Lisbon strategy.
Until now there is no official definition of cultural or creative industries at the European level. The
definition of culture the Member States agreed upon is the Eurostat definition (Eurostat, Cultural
Statistics in the EU – Final Report of the Leadership Group on Cultural Statistics (LEG-Culture),
Luxembourg 2000). According to the Eurostat definition, activities incorporated within cultural policy are
those dealing with preservation, creation, production, dissemination, trading and education, in all cultural
goods and services in the artistic and monumental heritage, book and press, visual arts, architecture,
performing arts, audio and audiovisual media/multimedia.
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Table 2.1: The Eurostat LEG-Culture definition of culture
visual arts (incl. design)
newspapers and periodicals
other (circus, pantomime, etc.)
Artistic and monumental heritage
Book and press
Audio and audiovisual media / multimedia
The study The Economy of Culture in Europe (2006) proposes a new definition of cultural and creative
industries. It distinguishes between:
a cultural sector constituted of traditional art fields and cultural industries whose output are
exclusively cultural, and
a creative sector which gathers the remaining industries and activities that use culture as an addedvalue for the production of non-cultural products (see also Table 2.2).
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Table 2.2: Proposed definition of cultural (grey) and creative (yellow) industries in the study The Economy of
Culture in Europe (2006)
Crafts, paintings, sculptures,
Theatre, Dance, Circus, Festivals
Core arts field
Achaeological sites, Archives
• Non industrial activities
• Output are prototypes and
“potentially copyrighted works”
(i.e. these works have a high
density of creation that would be
eligible to copyright but they are
however not systematically
Film and Video
Television and Radio
• Industrial activities aimed at
Circle 1: Cultural
Recorded music market, Live
music performances, Revenues
of collecting societies in the
Books and press
Book publishing, Magazine and
Fashion design, Graphic design,
Interior design, Product design
• Outputs are based on copyright
• Activities are not necessarily
industrial, and may be prototypes
• Although outputs are based on
Circle 2: Creative
• The use of creativity is essential
copyright, they may include
other intellectual property inputs
to the performance of these non
• This category is loose and
Circle 3: Related
mobile industry, etc.
impossible to describe on the
basis of clear criteria; it involves
many other economic sectors
dependent on the previous circles
such as the ICT sector.
Source: The Economy of Culture in Europe (2006)
We consider the Eurostat definition and the proposed definition in the Economy of Culture in Europe
(2006) important starting points for our international comparative investigation. Another important
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consideration for the investigation comes from the Dutch government in Our Creative Potential (2005).
We take on board one of the principles in that document: to make “no normative difference between
creative industry, cultural industry, art or entertainment: it concerns all industries in which creativity is
the crucial production factor”. This is an important observation as these normative distinctions might vary
For our comparative analysis, we have resumed all the cultural domains in three main groups (see also
arts (performing arts and photography, visual arts and cultural events, etc.);
media and entertainment (film, audiovisual sector, literature and journalism etc.);
creative business services (design, fashion, architecture, new media and games, advertising etc.).
This classification is taken from the Dutch definition of creative industries used by the Dutch Ministry of
Economic Affairs and Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in the publications Mapping Document
(2005) and Our Creative Potential (2005). This definition is in line with the Eurostat LEG-Culture (2000)
and The Economy of Culture in Europe (2006) definitions. The classification is a starting point for the
explorative research and subscribing to this classification also helps to steer away from the debate on
issues of definition.
One important difference between the proposed European definition and the Dutch definition is that the
latter also includes the so-called business column. The Mapping Document distinguishes three stages:
the initial creation;
tangible production, and
distribution and the retail trade.
These dimensions are illustrated in the diagram below (see Table 2.3). From the diagram we can read two
definitions: a narrow definition that covers only those sectors in which the initial creation takes place and
a broader definition including several creative sectors engaged in production, distribution and retail. Note
that the broader definition still excludes production, distribution and the retail trade in the branches
categorised as creative business services. The argument in the Mapping Document for that exclusion is
that the link with creativity is much weaker.
As said before we adopt the broad definition of the Mapping Document, but we think it is necessary to
introduce one modification for the research. We opt for two instead of three stages in the business
column, which mainly represent and resume the stages of creation versus marketability:
creation and production (we combine the strict definition of creative industries with part of the
broad definition, including several creative industries engaged in production), and
distribution and the retail trade (marketability).
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The argument for this modification is that it sometimes very difficult to separate the creation and the
production of creative products.
Table 2.3: Branches of creative industries:
• Visual arts and
• Visual arts and
• Performing arts: music,
• Production of performing
arts: music, dance, theatre
• Leisur centres,
• Reproduction and
organisation of cultural
publication of CDs and
• Leisure centres
• Film: scenario,
• Film production incl.
scriptwriting, and other
• Production of radio and
• Idem for radio and
• Publishers and printing
• Literature: novels, poetry,
Distribution and the retail
• Musuems and exhibition
areas, exhibitions, art
auctions, art libraries, art
• Theatres and concert halls
• CD and DVD stores
• Leisure centres, cultural
• Film distribution, film
theatres, video shops
• Broadcasting organisations
• Public libraries,
• Daily newspaper
• Industrial design, fashion
• Manufacture of furniture,
publishers and printers
design, graphic design
clothing, spectacle frames,
• Creative ICT: games, new
• Creative ICT, games, new
• Architecture, urban
• General civil and
commerical and industrial
• Public libraries, stores
selling books, magazines
• Trade in clothing,
spectacles, furniture, cars,
• Trade in computers and
• Project development;
trading in real estate
• Other advertising services
• Printing business
Strict definition: creation
Loose definition: creation, tangible production, distribution, and the retail trade
Not belonging to creative industries
Source: The Mapping Document (2005) and Our Creative Potential (2005)
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National policies for creative industries
The Mapping Document highlights the link between two worlds: culture and economy. This link has
several dimensions. For example: how does culture (in particular the supply of cultural amenities)
contribute to economic development? Or vice versa, what level of economic development is needed to
sustain a certain level of supply of culture? A key question in this investigation is: how to develop the
economic potential of culture? This is where creative industries and, more particular, government
intervention to stimulate creative industries become relevant. It is important to understand the special
circumstances of creative industries before we discuss the options for government intervention. Canoy,
Nahuis and Waagmeester (2005)8 summarise some of the peculiarities of the markets for creative
products. Table 3.1 lists the characteristics of the creative products. These characteristics concern the
demand side, the supply side and the market results. These characteristics are also useful for the
comparative research. They could be motives for national governments to set up national policies for
Table 3.1: Characteristics of the creative products
Generally speaking there is more uncertainty and higher risk
concerning a new cultural product
Extreme volatility of preferences for cultural products
Small is beautiful
Creative industries are characterised as small scale production
L’art pour L’art
Many creative people work from an intrinsic motivation
(financial compensation is not the main driver of creativity)
Many creative products are the result of the collaboration
between several groups of professionals
One or many
Can the product be reproduced?
Differentiated demand and supply and horizontal
differentiation; note that there is no perfect substitute for a
The best and the rest
Product differentiation leading to vertical differentiation
Some creative products create eternal cultural value
What policies should be considered for the comparative research? Standard cultural policies (such as
financial support for a traditional museum or a modern dance production) are not the first concerns for
Canoy, M., Nahuis, R. And D. Waagmeester (2005) De creativiteit van de markt; verkenning van de rol van de
overheid bij creatieve industrieën. No 90, Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag.
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this investigation. The key question is: what policies ensure that creative industries contribute maximally
to a nation’s wellbeing? Or to put it more concrete: what policies stimulate stronger economic
development of creative industries?
In the quick scan we have opted for the most pragmatic approach: to consider mainstream economic
policies that are also used for other sectors and other circumstances as well as a number of policies areas
that are particularly relevant for creative industries. The comparative research considers seven categories
of policies that are important for the economic development of creative industries. The first five
categories are grouped around popular themes in contemporary economic policymaking, the sixth
(intellectual property rights) is intrinsically linked to creative industries and the seventh is the
miscellaneous category. In this comparative research we include policies that stimulate, aim at or
1. Innovation (Section 5)
Policies stimulating innovation are standard practice in economic policymaking in many developed
countries. The base idea is that innovation drives economic development. Innovation policies are
particularly popular for high-tech sectors. Stimulating innovation in creative industries is the first set of
policies that we consider in the international comparison. It could concern policies that encourage
innovation, directly or indirectly, through events, creation of platforms for knowledge sharing, knowledge
transfer, networking, competitions, innovation funds, crossover among different sectors, etc.
2. Entrepreneurship (Section 6)
Policies aiming to stimulate entrepreneurship are part of mainstream economic policies. Research has
confirmed that more entrepreneurship leads to higher economic growth and more innovation.
Furthermore, there is a positive relation between economic growth and the number of start-ups. This set
of policies brings together skills training (marketing, management, accounting, business planning
guidelines, how to start your business, etc), information provision, networking, business start-up facilities,
dedicated business support, etc., in order to get new or more successful creative entrepreneurs. Other
educational policies will be taken into account if relevant, for instance when (national) educational
institutions are used to stimulate new business development.
3. Access to venture capital (Section 7)
Another set of policies concerns the efforts to help creative entrepreneurs to get access to venture capital.
Again this particular help to entrepreneurs is common practice in many countries. The philosophy is that
is difficult to find investors for new and challenging ideas. This set of policies includes the efforts to
match the entrepreneur who needs capital and the investor who looks for an investment opportunity. It is
also concerned with particular government measures to make it more attractive for private investors to
provide capital to entrepreneurs through fiscal stimuli. In the case of creative industries, it could involve
dedicated venture capital funds for these industries, broker policies and intermediary structures to
improve access to private venture capital by creative industries, etc.
- 10 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
4. (Inter)National market development (Section 8)
The fourth set of relevant policies deals with (inter)national market development. Government support for
international market development is common practice in all developed countries. The idea is that the
government can contribute to ‘open doors’ for companies or industries in developing their markets at
home but especially abroad. For creative industries this set of policies could have to do with raising
awareness of market potential, and with support to develop new markets (at home or abroad) through
traditional export promotion, commissioning, trade missions, representatives abroad, networking,
audience development, etc.
5. Creative clusters (Section 9)
Promoting the development of economic clusters has also become standard practice in economic
policymaking. In this research clusters are localised networks of specialised organisations, whose
production processes are closely bound up through the exchange of goods, services and/or knowledge.
Many cluster policies are developed at the regional or local level, but also national authorities promote the
development of clusters. This investigation comprises national policies to push the development of a
creative cluster within a city or a region.
6. Intellectual property rights (Section 10)
Many would consider copyright and intellectual property rights policies as relevant for creative industries
as creativity is at the heart of creative industries. In case of creative industries these policies do not only
concern the laws and regulation itself, but also support for the applications for protection or other means
to safeguard the creators’ rights.
7. Other relevant policies (Section 11)
This category consists of policies that are relevant to the present project but do not fit in the adopted
classification. It concerns tax exemptions and reductions for creative industries meeting certain criteria,
special fiscal regimes and subsidies for objectives other than the ones mentioned under 1 to 6. It could
also include competition policy9 specifically designed and applied to creative industries. Finally, it could
also look at policies promoting cultural tourism or attracting creative talent.
In this international comparative investigation we combine these seven categories of economic policies
with the broad definition of creative industries – the three sectors and the two stages of the business
column. The table in the annex summarises these aspects. We have included two more elements that are
relevant for this international comparative study. Does the national government develop specific or
Competition policies are ‘classical’ antitrust policies preventing too much concentration of power in the market
such as monopoly or oligopoly tendencies and it promotes competition.
- 11 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
generic policies for creative industries? Generic policies are policies directed to creative industries with
no distinctions among the three different groups of creative industries. Specific policies are policies
directed to only one and/or two groups of creative industries. A final question that is incorporated in the
study: are the policies concerned direct interventions by national government or are the policies meant to
stimulate local government to set up policies for creative industries?
- 12 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
General trends in policies
Before we analyse the various categories of relevant policies for creative industries, this section discusses
some general trends in the development of these policies.
Increased awareness of the potential of creative industries
This explorative study in the selected countries has clearly demonstrated that the interest of national
governments for the economic potential is on the wax. Many countries have commissioned studies into
the economic impact of creative industries since the first Creative Industry Mapping Document published
in the United Kingdom in 1998. Table 4.1 lists mapping document for some of the national governments
in this research. These mapping studies have given an impulse to the national debate on the importance of
creative industries and have led to the development of national policies for creative industries. The rapid
growth of national policies for the creative industry since 2000 is clearly an indication of increased
awareness at the national level. Furthermore, the attention has also increased in Portugal and Germany
where such a national assessment has not yet been carried out. Portugal is currently reshaping its policies
for cultural industries aiming to establish a stronger link with innovation and the economy. In Germany’s
parliament creative industries are higher on the agenda and many parties support the idea for a mapping
document of Germany’s creative industries (presumably called Deutschen Kreativwirtschaftsbericht).
Table 4.1 Documents mapping or exploring (the impact of) creative industries
Department for Culture, Media and Sport: Creative Industries.
The Ministry of Trade and Industry and The Ministry of Culture:
Denmark’s Creative Potential - Culture and Business Policy Report
Department for Culture, Media and Sport: Creative Industries.
Germany - North
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy of the State of North RhineWestphalia: 4th Culture Industries Report
Australian Government Department of Communications, Information
Technology and the Arts and the National Office for the Information
Economy: The Creative Industries Cluster Study
New Zealand Institute of Economic Research: Creative industries in
New Zealand: Economic contribution
Spain - Catalonia
Catalan Institute of Cultural Industries: Handbook on the Cultural
Industries of Catalonia
- 13 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Table 4.1 Documents mapping or exploring (the impact of) creative industries (continued)
Mandl, I. et al. for Federal Chancellery, Federal Ministry of Economics
and Labour of the Republic of Austria, Austrian Federal Economic
Chamber: First Austrian Report on Creative Industries (Erster
Ministry of Trade & Industry: Economic contributions of Singapore’s
Austria – City of
Ratzenböck, V. et al. for City of Vienna (MA 27)/Chamber of
Commerce Vienna/Filmfonds Wien: Untersuchung des ökonomischen
Potenzials der Creative Industries in Wien (Survey of the economic
potential of Creative Industries in Vienna)
Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and the Ministry of Education,
Culture and Science: Culture & Economy: Our Creative potential
Mandl, I. et al. for Federal Chancellery, Federal Ministry of Economics
and Labour of the Republic of Austria, Austrian Federal Economic
Chamber: Second Austrian Report on Creative Industries (Zweiter
Belgium - Flanders
Flanders District of Creativity: Creatieve Industrie in Vlaanderen
Promoting creative industries: economic policy or cultural policy?
A key question is: are creative industries primarily the subject of economic or cultural policy? The term
industries suggest that it is economic policy. The explorative study shows that national governments
consider it to be both. The most interesting policies combine cultural objectives (diversity, quality and
distribution) and economic objectives (innovation, entrepreneurship, export, investment, clustering and
economic growth). There is growing support for the idea that culture and creativity contribute to
economic development directly and indirectly. Having said that, the policy schemes included in the
research indicate that the majority of policies stimulating the economic development of creative industries
originate from, and are funded by, the cultural sectors. Table 4.2 indicates whether the majority of
policies in the first five categories of policies involve economic policymakers and economic funding or
cultural policymakers and cultural funds. The table should be read with caution as it is very difficult to
aggregate the complex realities of policy schemes. Nevertheless, the awareness of the economic potential
has increased but it has not resulted in an appropriate balance between mainstream economic policy and
- 14 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Table 4.2 Creative Industries: Economic Policy or Cultural Policy?
Economic agents and funding
Cultural agents and funding
Access to venture capital
What type of policies for creative industries?
In practice there are four types of policies for creative industries. The first type concerns generic
economic policies without any adaptation for creative industries. Creative industries are treated as any
other economic sector. The second type comprises generic economic policies that consider the specific
circumstances of creative industries. The third type is about specifically designed policies for the broad
spectrum of creative industries. The fourth type involves specific policies for sub-sectors of the creative
The central part of the quick scan has been about the second, third and fourth type of policies. The quick
scan point outs that creative industries are not excluded from generic economic policies. However, in
many of the type two, three and four policies, the argument for adapting existing or setting up new
policies is that creative industries experience difficulties to meet the criteria to qualify for support from
these generic policies. Most of the countries in the research have special strategies for sub-sectors of the
creative industries (such as design, audiovisual, media and gaming).
Comprehensive national strategy for creative industries: an emerging
The majority of countries in the investigation do not have a comprehensive long-term national strategy for
creative industries. Nonetheless, the number of countries with an integrated national strategy for creative
industries is growing (Austria, Finland, Singapore, United Kingdom are good examples of such
countries). Also, other countries have set up experimental programmes for creative industries (such as
As mentioned above most countries have strategies for sub-sectors of creative industries. One might come
to the conclusion that these sub-sector strategies might clash with a broad strategy for creative industries.
The quick scan does not support that conclusion. To the contrary, a national strategic framework for
creative industries with complementary specialist programmes for its sub-sectors might lead to synergy.
- 15 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Delivering policies for creative industries
Increasingly the delivery of policies for creative industries and policies aiming to stimulate sub-sectors
are put in the hand of arm’s length organisations. These organisations are funded from various (mostly)
public sources and are responsible for one or several categories of policies (innovation, entrepreneurship,
market development). For instance, stimulating innovation is a key challenge for the National Endowment
for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) in the Untied Kingdom. NESTA has a dedicated
programme for creative entrepreneurs. Table 4.3 highlights some examples of arm’s length organisations
that have specific attention for creative industries. One explanation could be that some distance from the
Ministries and other stakeholders involved could stimulate partnerships and promote policies that
stimulate both economic and cultural objectives. It is important to stress that despite the distance most of
these arm’s length bodies give account for their activities to the Ministries involved. Another trend is that
special workgroups with representatives of Ministries and other public stakeholders supervise the national
strategy. This trend could be related to the before mentioned trend as these workgroups can oversee the
activities of the arm’s length organisations, but these workgroups could also coordinate the activities of
individual Ministries. For example, the Ministry of Trade & Industry and the Ministry of Culture have
placed the management of Finland’s cultural export programme in the hands of a special working group.
Table 4.3: Examples of arm’s length organisations catering explicitly for creative industries
Arbeitsgemeinschaft creativ wirtschaft austria (creative economy
Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH
Austria – City of Vienna
Canada – Quebec - Montreal
SODEC (Société de Développement des Entreprises Culturelles)
Flanders District of Creativity
Belgium – Flanders
ParticipatieMaatschappij Vlaanderen (Investment Agency Flanders)
New Zealand Trade and Enterprise
Creative Community Singapore
Spain - Catalonia
Catalan Institute of Cultural Industries (Institut Català de les Indústries
Swedish Trade Council
The Swedish Knowledge Foundation
It is an initiative of the Wirtschaftskammer Österreich (Chamber of Commerce Austria)
- 16 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Table 4.3: Examples of arm’s length organisations catering explicitly for creative industries (continued)
The Creative Exports Group
Arts & Business
British Council - Creative Economy Unit
National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts
What is the role of national governments vis-à-vis lower levels of
What is the role of national governments in the policies for creative industries? What should be done
locally and what nationally? There is no unambiguous answer to this question. It depends very much on
the type of policies. The national level is leading for international market development, venture capital
schemes and copyright policies (in relation to supranational policies). Local and regional governments are
leading in creative cluster policies and entrepreneurship. The general picture for innovation policies is
more mixed as all levels of government are involved. Nevertheless, national governments are in charge of
the most important innovation policy schemes.
Do nations have priorities in the creative industries business column?
An explicit strategy for creative industries also raises the issue of priorities. In some cases, economic
policies focus more on creation whereas other countries prioritise distribution. Most countries though
have explicit policies for creation and production on the one hand and for distribution on the other.
Generally speaking, the latter is better integrated in standard economic policies than the first.
What are the most popular economic policies for creative industries?
In the selected countries, innovation, entrepreneurship and market development are the most popular
economic policies for creative industries. Venture capital is becoming more important but is not in the
same league. We have found interesting examples of creative cluster policies but most of the creative
cluster initiatives come from local government. Amendments and new Intellectual Property Acts are
being made to face the challenges of the digital society and find a good balance between setting the right
incentives for creation and diffusion of protected works.
- 17 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
- 18 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
One of the largest and broadest policy areas in this investigation concerns innovation policies. Several
different and interactive trends emerged within innovation policy.
First of all, innovation for the creative industry has to do with technological innovation (e.g. new media)
as well as non-technological innovation (e.g. design and creative partnerships). Especially the latter is
particularly important for the creative industries. In general, cultural policies can be considered part of the
innovation policies for creative industries: culture as the research laboratory for creative industries (e.g.
funds to stimulate the forerunners in creative industries, for example in the independent film industry).
Research and Development, both technology-driven and non-technology driven, is a key strategy to
develop a strong creative sector and develop innovative projects. R&D schemes and funds are being set
up to encourage specific creative disciplines that are critical to the national cultural development, or to
foster projects in the borderline between cultural and business sectors, or to make a better use of
Table 5.1: R&D supporting schemes
New Media Research Networks Fund (by Canadian Culture Online)
Arts R&D Funding Scheme (by National Arts Council)
Support Program for New Researchers / Undesignated Assignment
Support Program / Support Program for the Publication of Excellent
Film Books / Support Program for Excellent Theses (by Korean Film
Council - KOFIC)
The power of design
Numerous countries have developed national design programmes. Innovation policies in this field aim at
fostering the design industry and promoting good design through support, awards and competitions.
Design is recognised as a key factor in international competition and technological success.
- 19 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Table 5.2: An overview of awards and support to design
Belgium - Flanders
Talentscoutin (Talent Scouting) (by Design Flanders)
Innovation Support for Design (by National Council for Design) / Kaj Franck
Design Prize / Fennia Prize (earlier Pro Finnish Design prize) / Young Designer of
the Year Prize / Estlander Prize (by Design Forum Finland)
Premsala foundation -design platform (funded by Ministry of Education, Culture
and Science and the City of Amsterdam)
Award for Design Excellence / Honours Award for Design Excellence / Classic
Award for Design Excellence / Young Talent Award / International Design Award /
The Design Book (by Norwegian Design Council)
President’s Design Award / Light Touch Design Competition / Inter-Design
Development Scheme (by Design Singapore Council)
Swedish Design Award (by the Advertising Association of Sweden, The Swedish
Industrial Design Foundation-SVID and Svensk Form-The Swedish Society for
Crafts and Design) / National Design programme 2006-2010 (by SVID) / The
Association of Swedish Engineering Industries’ Grand Design Award (by SVID and
Design is also seen as a strategic tool that helps companies to be more competitive. Several institutions
and policies have been developed to provide a better understanding, knowledge and use of design as a
tool for innovation. “An important objective behind the Norwegian Design Council’s Award for Design
Excellence is to inspire companies and designers to work with strategic design”. One of the aims of
Design Singapore is to integrate design in companies as strategic tool to drive innovation and growth (see
also Section 8 on Market development policies). A similar initiative is developed by the Danish Design
Centre: Design + Business = Better Business. Finally, Design 2005! (Finland) will serve as final example
of a comprehensive and integral approach to design. The promotion of design is also part of the Cultural
Exports Promotion Programme 2007-2011 developed by the Finnish Ministry of Education, the Ministry
for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Trade and Industry (see Section 8 on Market development
- 20 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Box 5.1: Design + Business = Better Business – Denmark
The Danish Government launched a new design strategy in 2003 in close cooperation with the business
sector, designers and the design education programmes in order to ensure the competitiveness of Danish
design. The National Agency for Enterprise and Construction is involved in the business policy aspects of
Danish design, while the Ministry of Culture is responsible for the development of design in terms of
research and education. The areas of action within the design policy are related to branding Danish design
nationally and internationally, trade development, and facilitating the use of design by the corporate
The Danish Design Centre (DDC) is an independent body under the Ministry of Economic and Business
Affairs, whose priorities are to facilitate the use of design in the Danish business, to promote Danish
design establishing it as a worldwide brand and to increase the public interest for design. The DDC was
established in close cooperation between the private and the public sectors. The DDC functions as
Denmark’s national knowledge centre with respect to design. Seminars, workshops, network meetings and
campaigns, especially focusing on the usage advantages of design, are sought in order to build up
permanent co-operation within the Danish business world. Moreover, taking into account that SMEs
constitute the majority of the Danish companies, the DDC puts forward special efforts for these
enterprises which are seen as the potentials to implement design in their business operations.
In 2006 the DDC launched the promotion programme Design + Business = Better Business. The aim is to
improve the ability of Danish companies to work with design and helping them to become more
competitive in the international design trade.
Source: Danish Design Centre website (www.ddc.dk/DESIGNVIDEN/)
Box 5.2: Design 2005! – Finland
Finland’s national design policy resolution Design 2005! was adopted in 2000 to raise the competitiveness
of Finnish products and services through innovative use of design by 2005, the Finnish Design Year. The
policy was implemented by the Finnish government and followed up by several councils and bodies. The
main aim of Design! 2005 programme was to integrate design as part of the national innovation system
and its renewal.
In line with Design 2005! the Finnish National Technology Agency (Tekes) launched a large scale Design
2005 Industrial Design Technology Programme (2002-2005) in order to raise the standard of design
research and make use of design expertise in corporate product development and business strategy, and to
develop the services provided by design firms. The programme aims to increase co-operation among
corporations, designers, universities and research centres.
The Academy of Finland participated in the Industrial Design Technology Programme with its
interdisciplinary programme Industrial Design Research programme (2003-2006). The thematic areas of
the programme range from the usability of technology and research related to the information
environment, to cultural research and the artistic aspect of industrial design, to research into the use,
methods, benefits and systems of industrial design, new manufacturing technologies and sustainable
development in design.
Sources: Design Forum Finland website (www.designforum.fi); Finnish Design website
(www.finnishdesign.fi); Tekes website (www.tekes.fi); Design Forum Finland, Finnish Design Year 2005,
Final report: brief in English, 2006 (the document can be downloaded at www.finnishdesign.fi/files/fide/
- 21 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
New media, digitalisation and development of digital content strategies
The economic potential of creative industries can be strongly enhanced by the new technological
development and by the new media. Several specific policies, awards, funds and competitions have been
developed to stimulate new media arts and new works with the use of the new technologies.
Table 5.3: New media supporting schemes
Net Culture Support Scheme (by City of Vienna)
New Media Fund (by Téléfilm Canada)
Canada - Ontario
Ontario Interactive Digital Media Tax Credit - OIDMTC /
Ontario Computer Animation And Special Effects Tax Credit OCASE (by Ontario Media Development Corporation–OMDC
and the Ministry of Finance)
Subsidy schemes for artistic multimedia (by Ministry of
Fonds d’aide à l’édition multimédia - FAEM (Support Fund for
Multimedia Publishing) (by Ministry of Industry and Ministry
of Culture and Communication) / Reseau Recherche et
Innovation en Audiovisuel et Multimedia - RIAM (Network for
Research and Innovation in Audiovisual and Multimedia) (by
Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Education
and Research) / DIspositif pour la CRéAtion Artistique
Multimédia - DICRéAM (Programme for Artistic Multimedia
Creation) (by Ministry of Culture and Communication)
Financial Support for the Development of Multimedia Projects /
Financial Support for the Production of Multimedia Cultural
Content Works / Financial Support for the Transcription to
DVD format of cultural content existing works / Ver
Programme (by Institute for Cinema, Audiovisual and
Multimedia - ICAM)
Headstrong Digital Scheme / Feature Film Post-Production
Guidelines (by New Zealand Film Commission)
New Media Arts Fund (by National Arts Council ) / Synthesis
Online Content Initiative (by Media Development Authority MDA)
Digital Cinema Project (by Korean Film Council - KOFIC)
- 22 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
National policies are fostering the digitalisation of the cultural heritage available in archives, libraries,
museums and other cultural institutions in order to improve its preservation and to raise opportunities for
research and education as well as collaborative learning (e.g. Digital Library in Norway, Library 2010
Report in Singapore). In The Netherlands six institutions11 created a consortium called Beelden voor de
toekomst (Images for the future) which drew up a plan in order to preserve the Dutch audiovisual
heritage. The grant for the project was given in September 2006 by the FES (Fonds Economische
Structuurversterking), a fund aimed at reinforcing the economic structure of The Netherlands. The digital
content industry is seen as a new growth engine. Digital content strategies are developed worldwide to
induce investment and strengthen the development of digital cultural content production for new media
(e.g. Australia Digital Content Strategy, Digital Content Industry Action Agenda, Investment Scoping
Forum; Ireland Strategy for the Digital Content Industry, Digital content steering group; New Zealand
Digital Strategy, National Content Strategy; South Korea Contents Production and Technology
Development Service and Digital Contents Industry Promotion Policies; UK Digital Strategy, Creative
Industries Taskforce, Digital Content Forum).
The game industry is taking a growing share of the media sector, playing an increasingly important role in
content creation. Specific policies have been developed to make the game industry more competitive and
economically important for the export industry, such as establishing co-operative networks for the
distribution of games abroad and awards to encourage creativity and innovation (see Table 5.4). The
programmes developed by the Korea Game Industry Agency (KOGIA) and by the Finnish national centre
of game business, research and education Neogames, and the recently approved French tax credit for
game will serve as examples.
Box 5.3: Several programs by Korea Game Industry Agency (KOGIA) - South Korea
In 1999 the National Government founded KOGIA to develop the already competitive game industry into
a strategic cultural product of South Korea in the global market, addressing the relations with other
cultural industries such as the film industry. KOGIA sets out to position the game industry as the exportleading industry in South Korea and assure its competitiveness in the global market. KOGIA’s main goal
is to make South Korea one of the top-3 global gaming nations. Programs and activities related to
innovation, market development and entrepreneurship can be found among the seven core plans of
KOGIA: 1) Public awareness; 2) Promotion of e-sports; 3) Strengthening the competence of game
contents creation; 4) International collaboration and export promotion; 5) Intensification of industry’s
basic infrastructure; 6) Cultivation of essential key professionals; 7) Law and policy improvement and
Regarding innovation, KOGIA encourages game content creation by organising contests such as ‘Best
Games of the Month’ and ‘Korea Game Grand Awards’, and contests for content planning of video games
The preservation and digitisation of parts of the collections of the Filmmuseum, the Nationaal Instituut Beeld en
Geluid and the Nationaal Archief will result in a pool of high-quality and publicly available audio-visual content. The
Centrale Discotheek Rotterdam and the Vereniging Openbaar Bibliotheekwerk (public libraries) add their
distributional qualities and the Stichting Nederland Kennisland its copyright know-how and developmental power, so
that this content can be made accessible and ready-to-use.
- 23 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
and next-generation portable games. A teenage gaming culture festival is also organised to encourage
public awareness of gaming culture.
In order to reach the intensification of the industry’s basic infrastructure, KOGIA supports small and
medium game businesses and strengthens the services of integration between institutions. KOGIA
supports the promotion and exchange in the regional game industry, holding exchanges between CEOs
and developers from different regions. KOGIA operates a Game Research Center and works for
strengthening the collaboration between the industry and the universities.
KOGIA’s activities also aim to encourage executive innovation through customer satisfaction. The main
idea is to intensify education for improving organisational competence, provide social service programs
for customer oriented management, to operate product oriented personnel management system and to
conduct evaluation on business administration. It also works for developing a value assessment model for
game companies and contents, for providing administrative support and for establishing a plan to support
KOGIA developed a strong export promotion plan: 1) Building a comprehensive game exporting support
system and strengthen overseas PR; 2) Expanding a global marketing network; 3) Hosting an investment
and export conference for opening new markets; 4) Encouraging the participation of domestic game
companies in international expositions; 5) Establishing a Korean game PR pavilion in international
expositions; 6) Strengthening the global competence of domestic arcade games and mobile games.
Source: KOGIA website www.(kogia.or.kr)
Box 5.4: Neogames – Finland
The Finnish game industry is growing rapidly. Its positive development of the game industry in Finland is
the result of continuous investment in the sector. The Finnish National Technology Agency (Tekes) has
supported the game industry with generous investments since 2000. The promotion of games is also part
of the Cultural Exports Promotion Programme 2007-2011 developed by the Finnish Ministry of
Education, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Trade and Industry (see Section 8 on
market development policies).
Neogames is a national game centre which operates within the Technology Centre Hermia Ltd in Tampere
responsible for the coordination and implementation of the Tampere Region Centre of Expertise
Programme (see Section 9 on creative clusters policies).
Nearly all the members of Finnish gaming community are members of Neogames. Neogames gathers
around itself games companies connected to computer and mobile gaming, research institutes and
organisations from a one-man company to global players, from research to business.
Neogames’ activities are:
the creation of a comprehensive network of players in the games field
the development of games-related business
the support and coordination of research and training related activities to support the games field
the improvement of the image of the games field and making the field better known (transferring
games-related news from the culture section to the financial pages).
Source: Neogames website (www.neogames.fi/fingames/index.htm)
- 24 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Box 5.5: Crédit d’impôt jeu vidéo (tax credit for videogames) – France
As part of its supporting framework to the competitiveness of the game industry, France has recently
approved a tax credit for the creation of games (crédit d’impôt jeu vidéo) . The plan provides tax credits
of up to 20 per cent of production costs (maximum €3 million) in recognition of the ‘cultural dimension’
of games (e.g. involvement of artist talent: writers, directors, graphic artists, musical and sound creators).
Cultural criteria will play a central role in the selection of the games eligible for the tax credit. Game
companies entitled for the tax credit should prove production and development costs equal or superior to
€150,000, at least 50 per cent of which should be represented by artistic costs. However, the European
Commission has launched a formal investigation to verify if the tax credit might constitute a subsidy,
potentially in violation of EU policy.
Source: Leigifrance website (www.legifrance.gouv.fr)
Creation and fostering of networking, creative partnerships and
Policies and schemes to co-fund innovative partnerships among different sectors and actors, and among
different disciplines, thus promoting cross-over (e.g. art and science; art, business and technology), have
been set up as a way to affect and stimulate innovation. Such schemes would help to reduce some of the
barriers preventing the formation of strategic partnerships between the cultural and business sectors.
NESTA Connect is one of the best examples of this approach aiming at supporting collaborations between
different disciplines, organisations and places. The programme explores how collaborative practises
would affect and stimulate innovation. A similar fund has been recently developed in Ontario, Canada. In
September 2006 the Ministry of Culture in Ontario, Canada launched the Entertainment and Creative
Cluster Partnerships Fund (the Partnerships Fund) co-administered by the Ontario Media Development
Corporation. The three-year fund aims to foster long-term growth of the creative and entertainment
industries in Ontario, encouraging collaboration and lasting partnerships among companies and
educational and research institutions, the public sector and other business groups aimed at increasing
innovation and alertness in the creative cluster, especially in response to major shifts in technologies for
creation, distribution and delivery.
In order to improve the links between culture and economy in the Netherlands, the Ministry of Economic
Affairs in co-operation with the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science launched the Creative
Challenge Call in 2006 with a budget of €3 million. Both the Netherlands Foreign Trade Agency and the
Nederland Kennisland Foundation (an independent Dutch think tank) are in charge of the project. The
idea behind the tender is that the capacity of the Dutch business community to innovate can be boosted if
the links between creative industries, other sectors of the Dutch business community and knowledge
institutes are made stronger. The focus of the projects is on forming networks, knowledge transfer and
collaboration, international significance and sustainability. The projects selected have to be finished at the
end of 2007.
- 25 National Policies for Creative Industries © EURICUR 2007
Box 5.6: NESTA Connect - United Kingdom
The National Endowment for Science, Technology and Arts (NESTA) is committed to support
innovation, talent and creativity. It was launched publicly in 1999. Its mission is to increase the innovation
capacity of the whole UK economy. NESTA considers innovation as a key driving force for economic and
social development, able to improve the quality of people’s life, to generate new products, services,
industries and markets which in turn generate new employment opportunities. NESTA helps early-stage
companies to build-up skills and knowledge by informing them about innovation policies and by investing
in them directly (NESTA Ventures) or indirectly as a limited partner or co-investor (NESTA Capital). In
addition, NESTA is involved in developing regional and national policies that support innovation.
NESTA has launched numerous programmes that support early-stage and innovative companies. One of
them is the NESTA Connect initiative. The objectives of NESTA Connect are set out as:
to examine different models of collaboration and the extent to which they support new innovation
to explore variables involved in collaborative innovation, and identify correlations between them and
to showcase successful models of collaborative innovation and assess their potential for scaling and
to inspire and influence more successful and widespread collaborative innovation throughout the
public, social, and private sectors.
The core activity is based on stimulating collaboration for innovation among the UK innovators. NESTA
develops a series of practical projects using three types of collaboration:
Cross-organisational collaboration: value or supply chain innovation between different types of
organisation. For example, linking corporate, suppliers, universities and consumers, and exploring
‘open innovation’ and ‘user-led innovation’, such as the BBC Innovation Labs.
Interdisciplinary collaboration: bringing together researchers from different disciplines to review and
solve specific problems. For example, through the Crucible Programme for post-doctoral researchers.
Distance-spanning collaboration: to find out if collaboration (on and offline) is influenced by the
place where people live. In particular, NESTA wants to explore the impact of the emerging social
networking culture, enabled by the web, on the future of work, education, arts, media and
entrepreneurship. For example, Uploading...Innovation.
Source: NESTA website (www.nesta.org.uk)
As a more comprehensive and integral approach to the whole experience economy, the Swedish
Knowledge Foundation developed in 2006 the FUNK growth model in order to foster the experience
industry in Sweden and stimulate cross-over among disciplines and sectors.
Box 5.7: FUNK: A Growth Model for the Experience Industry – Sweden
FUNK is growth model developed by the Swedish Knowledge Foundation in 2006 in order to foster the
experience industry in Sweden. The Swedish Knowledge Foundation, whose board members are
appointed by the Swedish government, was created in 1994 in order to increase Swedish competitiveness.
Its primary functions are thresholds: the organisation of creative forums, the development of new forms of
collaboration and the improvement of cooperation among higher education and business sectors.
The term ‘experience industry’ defines the Swedish approach towards the new economy. It expresses
more than the creative and cultural industries. Experiences are sought as the important added values. In
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the words of the Swedish Trade Council “Design, music and games are for example added value to Sony
Ericsson’s mobile”. The Knowledge Foundation has determined 13 areas within the Experience Industry:
Architecture, Art, Computer games, Design, Fashion, Film/Photo, Food & Drink, Literature/Publishing,
Market Communication, Media, Music, Performing Arts and Tourism.
The FUNK model highlights how the experience economy is surpassing from conventional sectoral
boundaries towards a cross-sectoral and integral approach. The word FUNK represents the key intercomplementary fields where measures are needed to foster the experience economy. The acronym FUNK
stands for the Swedish words forskning (research), utbildning (education), näring (enterprise) and kultur
(culture). ‘Culture’ in the FUNK model generally represents the non-commercial part of the creative
industries activities. The whole vision of the model is to achieve improvements in society through a longterm approach and more sustainable use of the resources.
Sources: Swedish Trade Council website (www.swedishtrade.com/experienceindustry); Knowledge
Foundation, FUNK: A Growth Model for the Experience Industry, 2006 (the document can be
downloaded at www.kks.se/upload/publikationsfiler/funk-summary-2006-publ.pdf)
Specific funding, grants, awards and support
Several policies are specifically directed to architecture, arts, cinema, design, game industry, music and
theatre respectively in order to foster innovation in these sub-sectors. In general, the most developed
innovation policies regards film and design. The A•UDE Promotion Programme launched by the
Singaporean national land use planning authority to promote innovative activities in architecture and
urban design, and the policies of the Australian Film Commission will serve as example. In addition the
iP ImpulsProgramm creativwirtschaft Austria will be presented as an example of a fruitful collaboration
between the Austrian National Bank and the Austrian Chamber of Commerce in order to foster innovation
and economic viability of SMEs in the fields of music, multimedia and design.
Table 5.4: An overview of specific funding, grants, awards and support per sub-sectors
Building for Life / Europan UK (by Commission for Architecture and the
Built Environment - CABE)
The A•UDE Promotion Programme (by Urban Redevelopment Authority
and Design Singapore Council)
Visual Art support / New Technology support (by Arts Council Norway)
Young people & the arts fellowships / Emerging Curators Program (by
Cultural Medallion Grant / Young Artist Award / Emerging Artists Fund
(by National Arts Council)
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Table 5.4: An overview of specific funding, grants, awards and support per sub-sectors (continued)
Several programs developed by the Australian Film Commission
Screen Innovation Production Fund (by New Zealand Film Commission
and Creative New Zealand)
The Great Canadian Video Game Competition (by Téléfilm Canada)
Neogames’ activities (by the National Technology Agency - Tekes)
Crédit d’impôt jeu vidéo (tax credit for videogames) (by French
Mobile Game Development Initiatives (by Media Development Authority
Best Games of the Month / Korea Game Grand Awards (by Korea Game
Industry Agency - KOGIA)
Dare to be digital (by University of Abertay Dundee and National
Endowment of Science, Technology and the Arts - NESTA)
New Musical Works Program (by Canada Music Fund)
Subsidies to organise Music Competitions (by National Council for
Support to Experimental Theatre Projects (by National Council for
Independent Film Production Support Program (by Korean Film Council
New Cinema Fund (by UK Film Council)
Rookie film fund (by the Swedish Film Institute, with Swedish pub caster
SVT and so far two regional film centres, Film i Väst and Filmpool
National Scriptwriting Competition (by Media Development Authority MDA)
Fonds Experimentelles Musiktheater (Experimental Music Theatre Fund)
/ Theaterzwang (Theatre is thrilling) Performance Network (by NRW
Germany North Rhine
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Box 5.8: A•UDE Promotion Programme – Singapore
The A•UDE Promotion Programme stands for ‘Architecture and Urban Design Excellence Programme’. It
was launched in 2005 by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA), the Singaporean national land use
planning authority. The main goal is to support individuals and organisations carrying out innovative
activities in architecture and urban design. The programme provides funding up to 50 per cent of the
expenditure of activities under specific themes: Live-in-City, City for the People, Identity and Place
Making. Events, publications, multi-media productions, research studies and design competitions have
being set out. S$3 million have been allocated for the programme over the next three years.
Sources: A•UDE websites (www.ura.gov.sg/aude/ and www.ura.gov.sg)
Box 5.9: Several programs developed by the Australian Film Commission (AFC) – Australia
The Australian Film Commission (AFC) is a Government agency funded in 1975 to ensure the creation,
distribution and preservation of Australian audiovisual content (film, television and interactive media). It
is funded on one hand by the national government and on the other hand by the return on investments it
does in film production. AFC also gets funds from the interest income it receives on film development
loans. The agency assists audiovisual content production and also produces its own works. The AFC
funding programs offer support to projects and people with the aim to assist the career development of
writers, directors and producers. Even though AFC has funding programs supporting activities related to
national/international market development and improvement of education, training and entrepreneurial
skills, the main aim of the majority of its programmes is encouraging innovation.
The AFC funds project development (script development for feature films, short features, documentaries,
animations and digital media projects) with the objective to ensure that projects achieve their potential and
are as strong as possible when competing for production finance.
The AFC also gives funding for professional development through investment in the creation of lowbudget feature films, short features, short dramas, short TV drama series, documentary, animation and
interactive digital media projects. The aim of this programme is to assist talented filmmakers.
The AFC has a special initiative named IndiVision which is developed as a strategic response to declining
levels of film and television production in Australia. It includes several programs: IndiVision Project Lab
combines workshops on script development, performance work and visual language, production strategies
and marketing for low-budget feature film development; IndiVision Script Development Program
identifies projects at outline stage on the strength of the story idea and its ability to stand out in the
marketplace; IndiVision Production Program is designed to provide investment to low-budget features;
IndiVision Screenings showcase outstanding independent low-budget features from around the world with
the objective to inspire Australian filmmakers and audiences.
Another interesting initiative is ‘jtv docs’ which targets emerging filmmakers aged 35 years and under.
The programme funds four half-hour and/or one-hour documentaries to explore music, ideas, culture and
contemporary issues, to screen them on ABC main channel, ABC2 and ABC Online, and to incorporate
podcasts and mobile phone SMS technology.
Lastly, AFC also funds the development of interactive digital media projects. These projects have to be
activities that contribute to a further understanding of interactive and broadband content for interactive
television applications and online exhibition and distribution.
Examples of successful films 2005-2006: the feature film Ten Canoes which received AFC General
Development Investment funding, bridging and marketing loans won the Special Jury Prize at the Un
Certain Regard section of the Cannes Film Festival; the short animation The Mysterious Geographic
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Explorations of Jasper Morello which received AFC development and production funding was nominated
for Best Short Animation Film at the BAFTA and Academy Awards.
Sources: AFC website (www.afc.gov.au); AFC Annual Report 2005-2006 (the document can be
downloaded at www.afc.gov.au/downloads/pubs/annualreport0506.pdf)
Box 5.10: iP ImpulsProgramm creativwirtschaft Austria – Austria
The iP ImpulsProgramm was initiated by the Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH (AWS) - the Austrian
National Bank specialised in the economic support of companies, in particular start ups. Thanks to the
collaboration with the arge creativ wirtschaft Austria - the competence centre for the creative economy set
up by the Austrian Chamber of Commerce - the new programme iP ImpulsProgramm creativwirtschaft
Austria was launched in November 2004.
The programme provides funding for innovative projects in music, multimedia and design, with the
overall objective to support the numerous Austrian creative SMEs. Thanks to the fruitful collaboration
between the Austrian National Bank and the arge creativ wirtschaft Austria, the programme can today
make use of several services offered by the Chamber of Commerce (e.g. educational measures,
networking, export services, etc). The main instruments the programme uses to boost the creative
industries are educational measures (raising management competence), public awareness activities and
financial grants for innovative projects in the music, multimedia and design industries.
The programme is funded for a period of three years by the Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH, the arge
creativ wirtschaft Austria and the National Endowment for Research, Technology and Development. The
allocation of the budget takes place through a yearly call, inviting potential entrepreneurs and SMEs to
submit their business plans. Preference is given to projects that have not been established yet due to a lack
of financial means, but have the potential to become economically viable. Thus, the focus is clearly on
innovative projects with a commercial orientation. The subsidy may amount to a maximum of 70 per cent
of the project costs; on average subsidies of 50 per cent of the project costs have been granted. During the
first Call (finished in 2005) the jury (consisting of a number of international experts) decided to subsidise
24 projects, the total subsidy being €2.7 million.
Sources: Austria Wirtschaftsservice GmbH – AWS website (www.awsg.at); iP Impulsprogramm website
(www.impulsprogramm.at); Stiftung FTE website (www.stiftung-fte.at); KMU-Forschung Austria /Institut
für Kulturmanagement (IKM): Zweiter Österreichischer Kreativwirtschaftsbericht (Second Austrian
Creative Industrie Report). Vienna: Creativwirtschaft Austria, 2006 (the document can be downloaded at
The English summary can be downloaded at www.creativwirtschaft.at
Most of the selected countries and regions have developed special policies promoting innovation in
creative industries. R&D, both technological and non-technological, has emerged as a key strategy to
develop a strong creative sector and develop innovative projects. The cases of the game and design
industries are exemplificative of both kinds of innovation. Many national governments are developing
policies and schemes to create and foster networking, creative partnerships and collaborative strategies
among different sectors and actors, and among different disciplines as a way to affect and stimulate
innovation. The majority of the initiatives in this policy area are mainly directed to the
creation/production phase, and to specific creative industries sub-sectors.
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