Published on: **Mar 3, 2016**

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Business Technology

- 1. Unit 7<br />Nomenclature II<br />How to get the formula from the name<br />
- 2. Binary Covalent Compounds<br />Binary covalent compounds are compounds with two (2) nonmetals (Ex. CO, SF6, P2O5).<br />
- 3. Binary Covalent Compounds<br />Determining the formula:<br />Identify the elements in the compound. Confirm they are both nonmetals.<br /> Use the prefix to tell how many atomsof each element there are in the compound.<br />mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5<br />hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10<br />
- 4. Binary Covalent Compounds<br />Determining the formula:<br /> To indicate how many atoms of each element are in the formula, use subscripts.<br />Example:carbon dioxide has<br />1 carbon and 2 oxygens = C1O2 = CO2<br />(carbon’s 1 subscript is understood)<br />mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5<br />hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10<br />
- 5. Binary Covalent Compounds<br />Practice:<br /> selenium tetrafluoride __________________________________<br /> octaphosphoruspentabromide __________________________________<br /> heptanitrogenhexachloride __________________________________<br /> iodine trifluoride __________________________________<br />mono = 1 •di = 2 • tri = 3 • tetra = 4 •penta = 5<br />hexa = 6 •hepta = 7 •octo = 8 •nona = 9 •deca = 10<br />
- 6. Acids<br />Acid - a compound that produces hydrogen ions, (H+) when dissolved in water. An acid will always end in the word "acid"! Also, an acid formula will always begin with hydrogen!<br />
- 7. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />1) What kind of acid is it?<br /> a. If it begins with “hydro”, it is binary, meaning hydrogen bound to a nonmetal.<br /> b. If it does not begin with “hydro”, it is ternary, meaning hydrogen bound to a polyatomic ion.<br />
- 8. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />2) Find the formula of a binary acid!<br /> a. First, identify the nonmetal from the root of the word before acid.<br />Example: Hydrochloric Acid<br /> the nonmetal is chlorine.<br />
- 9. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />2) Find the formula of a binary acid!<br /> b. Then, find the oxidation number of hydrogen (always 1+) and the nonmetal and write them as superscripts of each ion. This makes a cation(+) and an anion(–)<br />Example: H+1 Cl–1<br />
- 10. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />2) Find the formula of a binary acid!<br /> c. Next, CRISS-CROSS the number of each oxidation number (NOT the charge!) down to the subscriptof the opposite ion to indicate how many atoms you have of each ion in the compound.<br />Example:<br />H+1Cl–1 = H1 Cl1<br />
- 11. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />2) Find the formula of a binary acid!<br /> d. Reduce subscripts to lowest whole number ratio.<br />ExampleHCl<br />(1 subscripts are understood)<br />
- 12. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />2) Find the formula of a binary acid!<br />Practice:<br /> Hydrochloric Acid_________________________________<br />Hydroselenic Acid_________________________________<br />Hydroiodic Acid _________________________________<br />
- 13. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!<br /> a. Identify the polyatomic ion.<br />i. If it ends in “-ous” acid, change the end to “-ite”, look up on polyatomic ion list.<br /> ii. If it ends in “-ic” acid, change the end to “-ate”, look up on polyatomic ion list.<br />
- 14. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!<br />b. Write the oxidation numbers of H and the polyatomic anion as superscripts<br />c. Criss cross the numbers only (not the charge!)<br />d. Reduce subscripts to lowest whole number ratio.<br /> SAME AS BINARY ACIDS<br />
- 15. Acids<br />Finding the formula of an acid<br />3) Find the formula of a Ternary Acid!<br />Practice:<br />Chlorous Acid____________________________________<br /> Sulfuric Acid____________________________________<br /> Perchloric Acid____________________________________<br />
- 16. Ionic Compounds<br />Ionic Compoundsare made of a metal and a nonmetal (KCl, NaCl, NaI, CaCl2, BeF2).<br />
- 17. Ionic Compounds<br />Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound<br />1) Identify the elements that make up the compound<br /> a. The first term, the metal, is the cation (+) and will look the same as it does on the periodic table.<br /> b. The second term, the nonmetal, is the anion (–) and its ending has been changed to"-ide”. Determine the element name from the root of the word.<br />
- 18. Ionic Compounds<br />Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound<br />2) Form the cation and anion by looking at oxidation numbers.<br />3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.<br />4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.<br />
- 19. Ionic Compounds<br />Practice:<br /> sodium chloride ____________________________________________<br /> magnesium fluoride ____________________________________________<br /> aluminum iodide ____________________________________________<br /> calcium sulfide ____________________________________________<br />
- 20. Compounds with<br />Polyatomic Ions<br />Polyatomic ions are groups of covalently bonded atoms that function as ions.<br />
- 21. Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions<br />Determining the Formula:<br />1) Identify the first term, the cation (+), and the second term, the anion (–)<br /> a. the cation, anion, or BOTH may be polyatomic ions.<br />2) Form the cation and anion by looking at oxidation numbers.<br />3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.<br />4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.<br />
- 22. Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions<br />Practice:<br /> Sodium cyanide ________________________________<br /> Aluminum nitrite ________________________________<br /> Ammonium silicate ________________________________<br />
- 23. Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals<br />Transition metals are the d block on the periodic table!<br />
- 24. Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals<br />Determining the Formula from the Name:<br />1) Identify the transition metal and the anion.<br />2) Form the cation and anion by finding the oxidation numbers of the ions.<br /> a. transition metal - the Roman numeral<br /> b. anion - periodic table groups or polyatomic ions<br />3) Use the criss-cross method to form the compound.<br />4) Reduce subscripts to lowest whole numbers.<br />
- 25. Ionic Compounds w/ Transition Metals<br />Practice:<br />tin (IV) iodide__________________<br />mercury (II) sulfide______________<br />iron (III) oxide__________________<br />nickel (III) sulfate________________<br />chromium (VI) phosphate__________<br />
- 26. Compounds w/Polyatomic Ions<br />