Presn critical incident method
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Presn critical incident method
Chandresh Gujar Hardik Shah Yash Ghelani
CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUEThe critical incident technique is a qualitative approach for obtaining specific , behaviourally focused descriptions of work or other activities.The technique was originally developed as a training needs assessment and performance appraisalCritical incident can be gathered in various ways , but typically respondents are asked to tell an story about an experience they have had.
4 CharacteristicsSpecificFocus on observable behaviours on the jobDescribe the content in which the behaviour occurredIndicate the outcomes
LOOKING FOR A CRITICAL JOB….A critical incident must be sufficiently detailed so that knowledgeable people will picture the same incident as experienced by the individual.For example : An extremely poor performance was provided by a police office in describing an ex-partner. He wrote, “while on duty this officer went out of his assigned duty area, went into a bar ,got drunk, and had his gun stolen.”
History of CITThe studies of Sir Francis Galton (1930) are said to have laid the foundation for the Critical Incident Technique, but it is the work of Colonel John C. Flanagan, that resulted in the present form of CITFlanagans work was carried out as part of the Aviation Psychology Program of the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, where Flanagan conducted a series of studies focused on differentiating effective and ineffective work behaviours.
Principle uses of CITCIT major purpose is to develop performance appraisal systems.CIT also helps for the development of customer satisfactionCIT is also useful developing highly detailed selection procedures such as assessment centres or behavioural interviews (For e.g. Office dept. developed their district mangers assessment method using CIT)CIT useful in variety of job- Air line Pilots, research scientists, dentists , Life insurance Agents etc.
ADVANTAGES OF CRITICAL INCIDENT REPORTING METHOD OF APPRISAL Person’s calibre is best judged in critical conditions. As evaluation is incident specific,the rater bias is minimised. Feedbacks can help improve the employee performance.Greater role clarity and improvement of work methods.Identifies near misses, which can have bearing on safety critical applications.
THE DISADVANTAGES…THE TERM ITSELF CRITICAL INCIDENT IS SUBJECTIVE.THE LACK OF TIME OF THE RATER IS ONE MAJOR HINDRANCE FOR CRITICAL APPRISAL.SOME OF THE MAJOR POSITIVE ATTITUDES LIKE OBIDIENCE,FAITHFULNESS,HONESTY ETC ARE NEGLECTED HERE.RELIES ON MEMORY,SOME OF THE MAJOR INCIDENTS MAY BE FORGOTTEN.UNLESS USED FOR DISCIPLINARY ACTION,THE SCOPE IS RATHER RESTRICTED.
HOW TO DESIGN THEFORMAT?STEP1:GATHER FACTS ABOUT WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENED…- BEFORE- DURING- AFTER THE INCIDENTSTEP2: ANALYZE THE CONTENTSTEP3: INFER ABOUT HOW TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE
STEP1:GATHERING FACTS…OPEN ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE OR INTERVIEWS CAN BE USED TO GATHER DATA.THE EVENT SHOULD HAVE HAPPENED RECENTLY,OTHERWISE THE USER WILL GIVE IMAGINED STEROTYPICAL RESPONSE.
STEP2:ANALYZING THE CONTENTTHE INCIDENTS ARE COMPILED INTO CATEGORIES.CATEGORY MEMBERSHIP IS MARKED AS: -IDENTICAL -QUITE SIMILAR -COULD BE SIMILARTHE PERCENTAGE RESPONSE IN EACH CATEGORY IS CALCULATED AND A REPORT IS PREPARED.
STEP3:INFERENCE AS TOIMPROVE THEPERFORMANCEPOOR FEATURES AS WELL AS GOOD FEATURES SHOULD BE ARRANGED IN ORDER OF FREQUENCY USING THE NUMBER OF RESPONSES PER CATEGORY.THE CIRCUMSTANCES THAT LED TO EACH CATEGORY OF CRITICAL INCIDENCE SHOULD BE ANALYZED AND IMPROVED UPON.
Thank you for putting us in thisCRITICAL SITUATION.