Political authority and individual conscience
Philosophical and Political Foundations of Development
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political authority and individual conscience
The word “politics” came from the Greek
word “politikos” which means “of, for, or
relating to citizens”.
the art or science of government
the art or science concerned with guiding
or influencing governmental policy
the art or science concerned with winning
and holding control over a government
of or relating to the government or the public affairs
of a country.
of or relating to the ideas or strategies of a particular
party or group in politics.
interested in or active in politics.
The word authority (Derived from
the Latin word ”auctoritas”) can be used to
mean power given by the state (in the form of
government, judges, police officers, etc.) or
by academic knowledge of an area (someone
can be an authority on a subject).
The defining mark of the state (the
right to rule)
The power or right to give orders, make
decisions, and enforce obedience.
It differs from mere power; it is not
simply claiming to have more power
than others but rather is claiming a
right to decide or control
Conscience is an
intuition or judgment
that assists in
from wrong. Moral
judgment may derive
from values or norms
(principles and rules).
GROUNDS OF POLITICAL
The Case for Absolute Authority
Philosophical Method (Resolutive-Compositive)
Endeavors or motives are the causes of action
Either we are attracted toward something, which we therefore
call good, or we are repelled by something, in which case we call
(1588 – 1679)
“A law of nature is a precept or
general rule, found out by reason, by
which a man is forbidden to do that
which is destructive of his life, or taketh
away the means of preserving the same.
And consequently, that every man ought
to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope
of obtaining it; and when he cannot
obtain it, that he may seek all help and
advantages of war.”
Conflict between Authority and Autonomy
Robert Paul Wolff
defining mark of the state
the right to rule
primary rule of man
the refusal to be ruled
1. If the state has authority over the citizen, then the state
has the right to command the citizen.
2. If the state has the right to command the citizen, the
citizen has the obligation to obey the state just because it is
3. But if the citizen is obligated to be autonomous, then he is
obligated to act only from reasons he himself regards as
4. If the citizen is obligated to act only for reason he himself
regards as good, he cannot be obligated to obey the state
just because it is the state.
5. Therefore, it cannot be the case both the citizen is
autonomous and under the authority of the state.
According to Professor Wolf:
Obedience is not a matter of
doing what someone tells you to
do. It is a matter of doing what he
tells you because he tells you to
EVALUATING THE POLITICAL ORDER
3 Lines of Investigation:
1. Under what conditions should the state’s claim to authority
2. How wide should the authority extend?
3. What are the obligations of a citizen to the state and its laws?
What is the proper response of political authority to
lawbreaking, on the one hand, and past injustice, on the
WISE USE OF POLITICAL POWER WILL
IMMORAL USE OF POLITICAL POWERCAN
COST THE LIVES OF MILLION MORE
A COLLEGE OR ITS FACULTY
- Establish requirements for graduation
The Court of Appeals gave the Santo Niño Parochial School (SNPS) 24 hours to
explain why it should not be cited in contempt of court for initially refusing to issue
Certificate of Good Moral Character (CGMC) to its salutatorian Krisel S. Mallari.
“Krisel’s welfare is of paramount interest and of primordial consideration and the State
is mandated to act on her behalf to ensure that her rights are protected and her dreams
and hopes are not put to waste.”
COACH OF A SPORTS TEAM
decide the lineup and determine who plays during games
COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS CHAIR ETTA ROSALES
CHR defends 2 undercover cops beaten up by Sona protesters
Philippine Daily Inquirer
By: Jaymee T. Gamil, July 29th, 2015 10:02 PM
THE Commission on Human Rights (CHR) has expressed support for the two undercover policemen
mauled by protesters hours before the State of the Nation Address (Sona) last Monday.
In a phone interview on Wednesday, CHR media office chief Banuar Falcon, quoting CHR head Chito
Gascon, expressed sympathy for the police officers who “were just doing their jobs.”
The two PNP personnel, Chief Insp. Antonio Ananayo and Police Officer 1 Reden Malagonio, were
tasked to conduct covert operations on the protesters on Commonwealth Avenue, but were noticed
taking photos, which irked the demonstrators.
The demonstrators claimed they were just conducting a “citizens’ arrest” when they mobbed the
two, and hauled them off to jeepneys.
Ananayao remains confined at the Philippine National Police hospital, for head injuries.
Falcon said what the police went through in the hands of protesters was “unwarranted treatment.”
“There’s nothing illegal about taking pictures,” Falcon said. He added: “Citizens’ arrests only happen
when a crime is being committed.”
“The police weren’t doing anything wrong. They were just ensuring people are safe,” Falcon said.
Falcon said that the policemen could file complaints with the CHR. “If they seek our help, of course
we will help them and extend legal assistance.”