2. Fullerenes
Since their discovery in 1985[5] extensive research has
been carried out on the practical applications of
of 1

Nanotechnology poster pdf

Published on: Mar 3, 2016

Transcripts - Nanotechnology poster pdf

  • 1. 2. Fullerenes Since their discovery in 1985[5] extensive research has been carried out on the practical applications of blackmisterfulerine compounds, most interestedly the cylinder mono-structure known as nanotube has developed many uses in nanomedicine. "This structure is a molecular-scale tube of carbon."[6] Figure-1: (A) Single Walled Nanotube. (B) Multiple Walled Nanotube.[7] There are two types of molecules, the Single Walled Nanotube (SWNT)(A) and Multiple Walled Nanotube (MWNT)(B). The SWNT's structure is composed by one single layer of graphene rolled in a cylindrical shape while the MWNT is composed by many SWNT layers one inside the other.[8][9] "Each of these types of carbon nanotubes have their own physical properties in addition to the standard physical property sets for carbon nanotubes."[8] This property will in the future allow these molecules to successfully be bounded with genes and drugs, when then introduced inside a body, nanotubes will be able to detect diseases very precisely to deliver the wanted treatment.[10] In October 2014 a team lead by Lawrence Livermore national laboratory have successfully managed to unleash DNA into a cell using DNA-based carbon nanotubes.[11] In essence these nanotubes are successful at creating a gateway to a cell, allowing the delivery for small ions, protons and DNA. Therefore scientists have high hopes that one day, effective and precise drug delivery will be possible. [10][11][12][13] Figure-2: a graphical representation of a carbon nanotube bypassing the cell membrane creating a small passage for treatment.[14] Nano-robotics in medicine The fascinating advancements of molecular nanotechnology "I am aware of the requirements of good academic practice and the potential penalties for any breaches". 1. Introduction Nanotechnology, the study and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale[1], has recently been in the spotlight for many innovative discoveries and applications. The 2010 Nobel prize in physics was in fact shared by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their graphene discovery at Manchester University[2]. Thus there is no surprise that sources suggest by 2020 nanotechnology will underpin vast areas of science and engineering, ranging from medicine to computer science[3][4]. It is therefore of essence to develop some understanding on this field of study. This poster investigates in particular the field of nanorobotics and their uses in medicine, for cure purposes and biological enhancements. Blood is composed mostly by plasma, blood with a small proportion of white blood cells and platelets. Platelet's sole job is to form blood clots at damaged locations in a body. Therombocytopenia is a condition related with low amounts of platelets in a body, where extensive lacerations do not stop bleeding.[15][16] Furthermore injuries with continuous blood loss are often fatal, hence as you might expect a reliable, cheap and always accessible method to restrict blood flow has been a holy grail for modern medicine. At the university of California synthetic platelets have been developed, these platelets show an increase with rats' self-healing capabilities, where after injection blood clotting occurred three times faster. Furthermore due to the chemical structure being Albumin (a protein) unused platelets are metabolized within two days, allowing this method to be safe.[19][20][21] 3. Synthetic blood Figure-3: representation of synthetic platelets forming a blood clot.[22] 5. OctoMeg Developed at ETH Zurich's Multy-Scale Robotics Lab (MSRL) the OctoMeg is a "magnetic manipulation system that uses electromagnetic coils to wirelessly guide micro robots for eye surgery."[21] These bots are made out of either micro assembled cobalt nickel, stainless steel tubing or neodymium magnets and sizes range around 250 and 300µm. The robot used for eye surgery is equipped with a needle to deliver the treatment.[21][22] 4. Nanoparticle Modern radiotherapy treatment relays on delivering small doses of radiation to cancerous cells, damaging their DNA and preventing them from reproducing[24]. A single treatment costs in the range of £1085 and £2000[25] and in average a patient is expected to receive 29 treatments.[26] The high cost and toxicity of using this method pushes scientific institutions to find alternatives. One alternative are golden nanoparticles, developed by Cornell University gold nanoparticles are formed by gold and iron oxide particles surrounded by an antibody. This antibody guides the particle to the cancer cell. After successful integration into the cell it is heated using infrared light. The heat kills the cell. [27] Figure-4: The OctoMeg apparatus used to control Microrobots.[23] Figure-5: Composition of a golden nanoparticle.[28] 6. Conclusion From the research carried out it's apparent that nanotechnology is quickly evolving, providing innovative applications along the way. However medicine is a very bureaucratic environment where new drugs and therapies take many years to be introduced in everyday life. This is why I believe the vision of scientists on nanotechnology in the year 2020 is unrealistic. Especially in the field of nanomedicine, one can argue that there is not enough time to undergo human clinical trials and provide the featuring technologies to the masses. 1:Webpage no author Definition of nano technology >http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/nanotechnology< 2:Web page no author Information on graphene >http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=67< 3:Blog by Nacy S. March 2013 Nano tech industry >https://www.asme.org/engineering- topics/articles/nanotechnology/top-5-trends-in-nanotechnology< 4:Web Document by Andres Falk >http://www.industrialtechnologies2012.eu/sites/default/files/NANOFORCE_poster_BioNanoNet.pdf< 5:Encyclopedia, Detail on Fullerenes >http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221916/fullerene< 6:Website by university of Reading, information on nanotubes >http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~scsharip/tubes.htm< 7:Picture by J Nucl Med in 2007 >http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/48/7/1039/F1.expansion.html< 8:Webpage no author October 2009, Properties of nanotubes >http://nanogloss.com/nanotubes/what- are-the-physical-properties-of-carbon-nanotubes/#axzz3J8fmeXxw< 9:Webpage unknown author >http://www.pa.msu.edu/cmp/csc/ntproperties/equilibriumstructure.html< 10:Webpage by Seyed Yazdan Madani November 2011, bounding nanotubes with drugs >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3230565/< 11:Article by Anne Stark October 2014, DNA-nanotubes >https://www.llnl.gov/news/tiny-carbon- nanotube-pores-make-big-impact< 12:News article by no author October 2014 DNA-nanotubes >http://www.kurzweilai.net/stealth-dna- based-carbon-nanotubes-tunnel-into-cells-to-deliver-targeted-drugs< 13:Nature letter by Jia Geng, etc.. October 2014 DNA-nanotubes >http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v514/n7524/full/nature13817.html< 14:Picture no author >http://www.orenregev.com/23-2/89-2/83-2/< 15:Online book, Blood Groups and RED Cell Antigens by Laura Dean 2005 >http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2263/< 16:Webpage no author, September >2012>http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health- topics/topics/thcp/< 17:Article no author November 2014 >http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141113140046.htm< 18:Research paper by Aron Anselmo, etc.. October 2014 >http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1021/nn503732m< 19:Blog no author, Novmber 2014 >http://www.futuretimeline.net/blog/2014/11/10.htm#.VGeJ8fl_uT8< 20:Picture no author >http://www.futuretimeline.net/blog/2014/11/10.htm#.VGeJ8fl_uT8< 21:Blog by Simone Schurle June 2013 >http://robohub.org/minimally-invasive-eye-surgery-on-the- horizon-as-magnetically-guided-microbots-move-toward-clinical-trials/< 22:Video by Ted Talks, OctoMag details >http://www.tedxzurich.com/speaker/bradley-nelson/< 23:Picture No author >http://www.memsjournal.com/2011/06/overview-of-mems-technologies-for- retina-applications.html< 24:Website by Cancer research UK, information on radiotherapy >http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancers-in-general/treatment/radiotherapy/about/< 25:Webpage by Nicole Fawcett October 2009 >http://ur.umich.edu/0910/Oct19_09/13.php< 26:Webpage no author September 2012 >http://www.rtanswers.org/statistics/aboutradiationtherapy/< 27:News article no author October 2013, facts on gold nanoparticles >http://scitechdaily.com/gold- plated-nanoparticles-seek-destroy-cancer-cells/< 28:Picture no author >http://www.nanoprobes.com/newsletters/ImgGold.html< 7. Reference list By: Brian Formento ID: 26788047

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