Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Popular tourism
Presented by : Bonnie
Anime : Animation style characterized by using colourful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastic themes. The earliest commercial
Japanese animation dates to 1917.
Hayao Miyazaki : Director of the movie “Spirited away” which won the Academy Award for the best animated feature film.
Manga: are comics created in Japan, or by Japanese creators, conforming to a style
developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
Osamu Tezuka : The characteristic anime style emerged in 1960 with the works of Osamu Tezuka
who is considered as the God of Manga.
Popular Anime Characters
ANIME STUDIOS IN JAPAN
Opened in 2001 to
commemorate the works of
manga artist Shotaro Ishinomori.
Fujiko F Fujio Museum
Suginami Studio Ghibli
Mecca of Anime
Houses 40 animation
Fine Art Museum dedicated to
fine art and animation
Founded by Hayao Miyazaki
They produced the anime version of
works by many legendary manga
artists including Go Nagai, Eiichiro
Oda, Shotaro Ishinomiri
Gainax typically worked on stories
developed on existing manga
Chibi Maruko-Chan Land
Gundan Front Tokyo
J – World Tokyo
Anime attractions in Japan
One Piece Theme Park
Anime shops in Japan
Akihabara Electric Town , The Tokyo Anime Center and Mandarake
Otaku is a Japanese term for people with obsessive interests.
Literal meaning – “your home”.
Its contemporary usage originated with Akio Nakamori's 1983 essay in the magazine Manga
Nowadays Otaku is a subculture of international manga and anime fans.
Otaku tourism: travel by mainly male fans of otaku
subculture to anime ‘sacred sites’ (the locations that
feature in favorite anime).
Anime pilgrims are pioneers. Otaku tourists are followers.
The fundamental motivation of travellers is to visit the
sites that appeared in anime.
Anime pilgrimage began in the 1990s.
Otaku tourism and anime pilgrimage are core elements of
the Japanese government’s ‘Cool Japan’ strategy in the
The touristic behavior patterns of anime
Anime pilgrims tend to travel individually or in small groups, and group tours are rare.
The touristic behavior patterns of anime pilgrims:
1. Take photographs of the locations they visit from the same angles that the places are shown
in the anime.
2. Leave mementos or evidence of their trips such as objects, comments or illustrations.
3. Take laptop computers or mobile phones with them and provide live updates or pilgrimage
diaries in real time on internet notice-boards, blogs or video sites like YouTube.
4. Decorating cars with anime stickers and illustrations.
5. Dressing up in the costumes and appearances of anime characters.
6. The acceptance of interaction between travellers and host community, and among fellow
Tourism problem: There is lack of information about otaku tourists and their
-To create a detailed description of Otaku tourists.
- Main source markets;
-Socio-economic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, level of income);
- Touristic motivation;
Significance of the research: It will help to create Otaku tourism industry
Theory: Push/Pull Motives
Pull Factors/ intrinsic motivations:
E.g. Desire, interests, etc.
Push Factors/extrinsic motivations
E.g. Promotion, costs, location, nature disaster, economic, etc. e.g
Research Area and Research Question
Research Area: Otaku from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan
1. Who are the tourists visiting Anime destination in Japan
2. Why do the tourists from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan visit Anime destination in
Research Paradigm: Positivist Research
Positivists view reality as consisting of sensible facts that can be investigated through empirical inquiries
based on scientific observations (Gray, 2004).
Ontology: Realism ontology
Epistemology: Objectivism epistemology
The objectivism epistemology believes the meaningful reality exists objectively, regardless of individuals’
awareness of its existence or not (Crotty, 1998).
Theory: Pull/Push Motives in Tourism
Data Collection(Ideally, 500 participants, who are Otakus, from each researched location)
Arai, H., 2005. Intellectual property strategy in Japan. International Journal of Intellectual Property:
Law, Economy and Management, 1, 512. Available from: http://www.ipaj.org/english_journal/
pdf/Intellectual_Property_Strategy.pdf [Accessed 2 June 2014].
Beeton, S., Yamamura, T. and Seaton, P., 2013. The mediatisation of culture: Japanese contents
tourism and pop culture. In: J. Lester and C. Scarles, eds. Mediating the tourist experience: from
brochures to virtual encounters. Farnham: Ashgate, 13954.
Chua, B. H., 2012. Structure, audience and soft power in East Asian pop culture. Hong Kong: Hong
Kong University Press.
MacWilliams, M., ed., 2008. Japanese visual culture: explorations in the world of manga and anime.
New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Okamoto T. (2014) Otaku tourism and the anime pilgrimage phenomenon in Japan. Japan Forum,
Seaton, P., & Yamamura, T. (2014, December 13). Japanese Popular Culture and Contents Tourism –
Introduction. Japan Forum.
Thank you for the attention!