Politics of Luxembourg
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Politics of Luxembourg
Benedict (Viktor) GomboczPolitics of Luxembourg
Geography of Luxembourg Location: Western Europe, betweenFrance and Germany Area Total: 2,586 km Country comparison to the world: 179 Land: 2,586 km Water: 0 sq km (landlocked) Area – comparative: Slightly smallerthan Rhode Island Land boundaries: Total: 359 km Border countries: Belgium 148 km,France 73 km, Germany 138 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Physical Map of Luxembourg
Background of Luxembourg’s politicalsystem The political structure of Luxembourg functions in a frame of aparliamentary representative democratic monarchy, with the PM as thehead of government, and of a multi-party structure. Under the 1868 constitution, as modified, the government (led by theGrand Duke and the Council of Government, or cabinet, which iscomposed of a PM and various other ministers) exercises executivepower. The PM is frequently the leader of the political party or coalition ofparties who have the majority of parliament seats. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament,while the judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, directly electedfor five-year terms.
Government of Luxembourg Capital (and largest city):Luxembourg Official language(s): French,German, Luxembourgish Demonym: Luxembourger Government: Unitaryparliamentary constitutionalmonarchy Grand Duke: Henri Prime Minister: Jean-ClaudeJuncker Legislature: Chamber ofDeputies
Executive BranchMain office holdersRoles of the officeholders Office: Grand Duke Name: Henri Party: None Since: 7 October 2000 Office: Prime Minister Name: Jean-Claude Juncker Party: CSV Since: 26 January 1995 Office: Deputy Prime Minister Name: Jean Asselborn Party: LSAP Since: 31 July 2004 Luxembourg has a parliamentary form ofgovernment with a constitutional monarchyfunctioning in relation to absoluteprimogeniture. Under the 1868 constitution, the Grand Dukeor Grand Duchess and the cabinet, which ismade up of a PM and various other ministers,exercises executive power. The Grand Duke holds the power to dissolvethe legislature and replace it with a new one. Nonetheless, since 1919, sovereignty hasexisted with the state; the monarch istraditional. The monarch appoints the PM and the VicePM subsequent to the Chamber of Deputies;they are accountable to the Chamber ofDeputies. The current government is a CSV-LSAPcoalition.
Legislative Branch The Chamber of Deputies (DChamber; Chambre des Députés;Abgeordnetenkammer) consists of 60 members; those members are electedto a five-year term through proportional representation in four multi-seatconstituencies. The Council of State (Staatsrot; Conseil dÉtat; Staatsrat) is an advisorybody consisting of 21 regular citizens nominated by the Grand Duke; itadvises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation. The task of councillor concludes following a continous or discontinousfifteen-year period when the relevant individual turns seventy-two. The duties of the members of the Conseil dÉtat are extracurricular to theirregular professional responsibilites.
Judicial Branch Luxembourgian law is a composite of local practice, lawful custom,and French, Belgian, and German structures. The apex of the judicial structure is the Superior Court of Justice(Cour Superieure de Justice), whose judges are nominated bythe Grand Duke for life; the same applies to the AdministrativeCourt (Tribunal Administratif).
Administrative Divisions The Grand Duchy is split intothree districts: Diekirch,Grevenmacher, Luxembourg.
Parliamentary parties Alternative Democratic Reform Party(Alternativ Demokratesch Reformpartei;Parti réformiste dalternative démocratique;Alternative Demokratische Reformpartei) Christian Social People’s Party (ChrëschtlechSozial Vollekspartei;Parti populaire chrétiensocial; Christlich Soziale Volkspartei) Democratic Party (Demokratesch Partei;Parti démocratique; Demokratische Partei) The Greens (Déi Gréng; Les verts; DieGrünen) The Left (Déi Lénk; La gauche; Die Linke) Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party(Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei;Parti ouvrier socialiste luxembourgeois;Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei)
Henri Born 16 April 1955 at the Betzdorf Castle. Current Grand Duke of Luxembourg since 7October 2000. Is the oldest son of Jean, Grand Duke ofLuxembourg and Princess Joséphine Charlotteof Belgium. His maternal grandparents were King Leopold IIIof Belgium and Astrid of Sweden. Is a nephew of the current King of Belgium,Albert II. Has four siblings: Archduchess Marie Astrid ofAustria (born 1954), Prince Jean of Luxembourg(born 1957), Princess Margaretha ofLiechtenstein (born 1957), and Prince Guillaumeof Luxembourg (born 1963). Was educated in Luxembourg and in France,where he earned his baccalaureate in 1974;subsequently studied political sciences at theUniversity of Geneva, and graduated in 1980. Also started military officer training at the RoyalMilitary Academy Sandhurst in England.
Jean-Claude Juncker Born 9 December 1954 in Redange. 23rd and current PM of Luxembourg since 20January 1995. Is the lengthiest-serving head of governmentof any EU state; is also the lengthiest-servingdemocratically elected current head of anygovernment in the world. Served as the President of the Eurogroupfrom the semi-lasting’s post establishment in2005 until 2013. Was elected to the Chamber of Deputies forthe Christian Social People’s Party in 1984;instantly advanced to Jacques Santer’scabinet as Minister for Work. Served as Minister for Finances forLuxembourg between 1989-2009; becamePM when Santer became President of theEuropean Commission in 1995. Was also President of the European Counciland served two six-month terms in hisposition as PM, in 1997 and 2005.
Christian Social People’s Party Biggest political party in Luxembourg. Adheres to a Christian-democratic andconservative ideology; is strongly pro-European,like most parties in Luxembourg. Member of the European People’s Party (EPP,European affiliation and EP group) and theCentrist Democrat International (Internationalaffiliation). Has been the biggest party in the Chamber ofDeputies since its founding in 1944; currently has26/60 seats in the Chamber. Since WWII, every PM of Luxembourg has beena member of the CSV; the only exclusion isGaston Thorn (1974-1979). Has three of Luxembourg’s six seats in the EP, asit has for 20 of the total 30 years in which MEPshave been elected directly. Michel Wolter is its president, even though theleading member is PM Jean Claude-Juncker, whorules in coalition with the Luxembourg SocialistWorkers’ Party (LSAP). Eight other members of the CSV sit in the fifteenmember cabinet.