Politics of Egypt
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Politics of Egypt
Benedict S. Gombocz
The political system of Egypt is based on republicanism, with a semi-presidential system.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution, took
executive power after the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and President Hosni Mubarak’s resignation.
A coup d’état in 2013 that deposed Mohamed Morsi led to the selection of Adly Mansour as the acting President
Government: Unitary semi-presidential
Acting President: Adly Mansour
Acting Prime Minister: Ibrahim Mahlab
Legislature: House of Representatives (dissolved)
The president, under the new guidelines of the March 2011 referendum, is limited to two four-year terms, with the
Judiciary as the supervisor of the elections.
The president has to nominate a deputy; a committee will outline a new constitution after the parliamentary election.
Candidates need to give 30,000 signatures from a minimum of fifteen provinces, 30 members of a chamber of the
legislature, or appointment by a party claiming at least one seat in the legislature.
A commission was supposed to outline a new constitution to replace the pre-revolutionary constitution, followed by
presidential elections, after the newly elected People’s Assembly and Maglis al-Shura convened in March 2012, but the
2012 Egyptian presidential election nevertheless took place in the absence of a revised constitution.
The military council, which assumed power early in 2011, promised a fair and civilian vote.
The first round of the presidential election occurred on 23 and 24 May 2012; a run-off round followed on 16 and 17 June,
which was won by Mohamed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party, and he was sworn in on 30 June 2012.
On 3 July 2013, Egypt’s constitution was suspended, overthrowing Morsi.
The Chief Justice of Egypt will hold power during the transition period and will set a date for early presidential elections.
The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, often known as the Military Council, came to power after the 11
February 2011 resignation of President Hosni Mubarak; it was led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi.
The council was meant to be transitional so it could hand over its state powers to the president following May
2012 presidential election.
The council has substantial power; according to at least one source, it has unilaterally issued a constitutional
statement in which it granted itself legislative and judicial powers to “basically decide what the law is.”
According to the Constitution of Egypt, political parties are permitted.
However, religious political parties are forbidden because they would not respect the law of non-intervention of religion in
politics, and that religion needs to remain active in the private sphere to tolerate all views.
Political parties sympathizing with militia formations or having an agenda that goes against the constitution and its
standards, or undermining the country’s strength (such as national agreement between Egyptian Muslims and Egyptian
Christians) are also prohibited.
There are over 40 registered political parties in Egypt as of 2012; the seven largest of these are the Freedom and Justice
Party, the al-Nour Party, the New Wafd Party, the Free Egyptians Party, the Justice Party, the Wasat Party, and the Egyptian
Social Democratic Party.
◦ Mohamed Morsi (olive green)
Party: Freedom and Justice
Popular vote: 13,230,131
◦ Ahmed Shafik (magenta)
Popular vote: 12,347,380
Born 23 December 1945 in Cairo.
Acting President of Egypt and a judge who leads the
Supreme Constitutional Court.
Was named president after the Egyptian coup d’état of
July 2013 that were precipitated against his
predecessor, Mohamed Morsi; it was later announced
by Egypt’s military and many other figures, both secular
and religious, including the Grand Imam of al-Azhar
(Ahmed el-Tayeb), the Coptic Pope (Tawadros II), and
Mohamed ElBaradei that President Morsi had been
forced from power, nominating, until such time that an
election could be held, Mansour.
Morsi, regardless, did not recognize his removal as
legitimate and still retained that only he could be seen
as the real President of Egypt.
Assumed office in front of the Supreme Constitutional
Court on 4 July 2013.
Born in 1949.
Acting PM of Egypt since 1 March 2014; previously
served as the Minister of Housing.
Was a member of the Politics Committee of the National
Democratic Party; the governing party was dissolved
following the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak in
Hazem el-Beblawi was named acting PM, while Mahlab
was nominated Minister of Housing.
Was charged with forming a provisional government
after el-Bablawi’s government, in a surprising move,
He declared that his government would “work together
to restore security and safety to Egypt and crush
terrorism in all corners of the country."
He also promised to reorganize the economy.
Declared, the day after he took office, that security is
the primary concern and ordered an end to
demonstrations and strikes.
Is married and speaks two other languages: English and
Islamist political party.
Won more seats than any other party in the 2011
parliamentary election; its ex-chairman, Mohamed Morsi,
won the 2012 presidential election.
Technically independent, but has strong ties to the Muslim
Brotherhood of Egypt, the biggest and best-organized of
Egypt’s political groups.
Won 47.2% of all seats in the country’s lower house of
parliament during the 2011-2012 Egyptian parliamentary
election; two other Islamist parties, Al-Nour and Al-
Wasat, won 24.7 and two percent, respectively.
Both the FJP and Al-Nour, a Salafist party, have since
rejected supposed plans to politically unify.
Initially said it would not nominate a candidate for the
2012 Egyptian presidential election, but nonetheless did;
they first nominated Muslim Brotherhood leader Khairat
al-Shater, and later, Morsi.
The provisional government considers the Muslim
Brotherhood a terrorist group, leaving the FJP’s status
Will be allowed to run in the 2014 parliamentary election if
it breaks with the Muslim Brotherhood.
On 15 April 2014, the Alexandria Court for Urgent Matters
outlawed current and past members of the Muslim
Brotherhood from running in the parliamentary elections.
One of the political parties founded after the 2011
Has an ultra-conservative Islamist idealogy that believes
in applying strict Sharia law.
Has been portrayed as the Salafi Call Society’s political
arm, and “by far the most prominent” of the numerous
new Salafi parties in Egypt, which it has exceeded by an
asset of its “long organizational and administrative
experience” and “charismatic leaders”.
Led the Islamist Bloc in the 2011-2012 Egyptian
parliamentary elections, during which it won 7,534,266
votes out of a total 27,065,135 accurate votes (27.8%).
The Islamist Bloc, which the Al-Nour was a participant
of, took 127 of 498 parliamentary seats counted,
second to the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and
The Al-Nour Party itself took 111 of the 127 seats.
Increasingly distanced itself from Mohammad Morsi’s
Brotherhood government after January 2013; joined the
opposition in the coup of July 2013 that overthrew