Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - nanotechnology...
• Terms and Definition of nanotechnology.
• History of nanotechnology.
• Nanoscales and nanometers.
• Types of Nanotechnology.
• Applications of nanotechnology.
• Tomorrow of nanotechnology.
THE WORLD BEYOND MICRO
WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
• In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the
projected ability to construct items from the bottom
up, using techniques and tools being developed today
to make complete, high performance products.
• A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the
engineering of functional systems at the molecular
scale. This covers both current work and concepts that
are more advanced
• Nanotechnology is the application of scientific and
engineering principles to make and utilize very small things.
The inventions being created based on the new science of
nanotechnology promise to make what was science fiction
become science fact.
• Nanotechnology does not have to be as small as atoms or
molecules, but it is much smaller than anything you can see
with your naked eye. Many materials exhibit unusual and
useful properties when their size is reduced.
• When k.eric Drexler. popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the
1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of
molecules, a few nanometers wide motors, robot arms, and even whole
computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent the next ten years
describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to
accusations of science fiction. Meanwhile, mundane technology was
developing the ability to build simple structures on a molecular
scale. As nanotechnology became an accepted concept, the meaning of
the word shifted to encompass the simpler kinds of nanometer scale
NANOSCALES AND NANOMETERS
• How do we measure the size of nanotechnology materials? We measure
materials using the nanoscale. While not precisely defined, the
Nanoscales ranges from about 1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nanometers.
From things the size of individual atoms on the smallest to what you
might see with very good optical microscope at the largest size.
• A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. (A meter is about 10% longer
than a yard.) The prefix “Nano” means “one billionth”, or 10-9, in the
international system for units of weights and measure. A sheet of paper
is about 100,000 nanometers thick; a single gold atom is about a third or
a nanometer in diameter.
TYPES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is obiquitous and pervasive. Its and emerging
field in all area of science, engineering and technology. Some are
• Nano electronics.
• Nano materials.
• Nano robotics.
• Nano biotechnology.
• Molecular mechanics.
• The semiconductor industry is a major driver of the
modern U.S. economy and has accounted for a large
portion of the productivity gains that have
characterized the global economy since the 1990s.
Recent advances in this area have been fueled by what
is known as Moore’s Law scaling, which has
successfully predicted the exponential increase in the
performance of computing devices for the last 40
• This gain has been achieved due to ever-increasing miniaturization
of semiconductor processing and memory devices (smaller and
faster switches and transistors). Continuing to shrink the
dimensions of electronic devices is important in order to further
increase processor speed, reduce device switching energy, increase
system functionality, and reduce manufacturing cost per bit.
However, as the dimensions of critical elements of devices
approach atomic size, quantum tunneling and other quantum
effects degrade and ultimately prohibit the operations of
conventional devices. Researchers are therefore pursuing more
radical approaches to overcome these fundamental physics
• Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve,
even revolutionize, many technology and industry
sectors: electronics technology, energy, environmental
science, medicine, homeland security, food safety, and
• Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing,
communications, and other electronics applications to
provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that
can manage and store larger and larger amounts of
information. These continuously evolving applications
• Cadmium selenide nanocrystals deposited on plastic
sheets have been shown to form flexible electronics
circuit Researchers are aiming for a combination of
flexibility, a simple fabrication process and low power
• Nanoscale transistors that are faster, more powerful, and
increasingly energy-efficient; soon your computer’s entire
memory may be stored on a single tiny chip.
• Displays for many new TVs, laptop computers, cell
phones, digital cameras, and other devices incorporate
nanostructured polymer films known as organic light-
emitting diodes, or OLEDs. OLED screens offer brighter
images in a flat format, as well as wider viewing angles,
lighter weight, better picture density, lower power
consumption, and longer lifetimes.
• Other computing and electronic products include Flash
memory chips for iPod nano; ultra responsive hearing aids;
antimicrobial/antibacterial coatings on mouse/keyboard/cell
phone casings; conductive inks for printed electronics for
RFID/smart cards/smart packaging; more life-like video
games; and flexible displays for e-book readers.
• Building transistors from carbon nanotubes to enable
minimum transistor dimensions of a few nanometers and
developing techniques to manufacture integrated circuits built
with nanotube transistors.
• Nanotechnology has the real potential to revolutionize a wide array of
medical and biotechnology tools and procedures so that they are more
personalized, portable, cheaper, safer, and easier to administer.
Below are some examples of important advances in these areas
• Nanotechnology has been used in the early diagnosis of
atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in arteries. Researchers have
developed an imaging technology to measure the amount of an
antibody-nanoparticle complex that accumulates specifically in
plaque. Clinical scientists are able to monitor the development of
plaque as well as its disappearance following treatment
FUTURE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
• The future of nanotechnology is completely uncharted
territory. It is almost impossible to predict everything
that nanoscience will bring to the world considering
that this is such a young science. There is the
possibility that the future of nanotechnology is very
bright, that this will be the one science of the future
that no other science can live without. There is also a
chance that this is the science that will make the world
highly uncomfortable with the potential power to
transform the world.