Nationalism and National Identity
Published on: Mar 5, 2016
Transcripts - Nationalism and National Identity
BEIJING, 2008 MEXICO CITY, 1968
Are nations ancient or recent constructs?
How do we define a nation now?
What does “the nation” mean for
individuals and their identity?
Identity is basic part of human society
Rooted in history and experience
Bonds are ancient and enduring
Biology and Evolution
“Survival of the Fittest”
Nationalism = Relatively regent emergence
17th and 18th centuries
Key Aspects of Nationalism:
#1: Idea of “nation” is inclusive
#2: Treats all members of society equally
#3: Nation of sovereign (Discussions of State)
Is the U.S. a “modern” nation by these criteria?
Nationalism is socially and politically
constructed over time
Identity is a resource in the hands of leaders
while pursuing other interests
Bonds are means to gain material goals
Western and Eastern Nationalism
Western:Tolerance, Democratic Institutions
Eastern: Xenophobia, Ethnocentrism
Civic and Ethnic Nationalism
Importance of Citizenship
What is Territorial Nationalism?
Individualistic and Collectivistic Nationalism
Individualistic: Individuals Community
Collectivistic: Community Individuals
Focus on Evolution, Social Darwinism
What are the main critiques of this approach?
▪ #1: Lack of Empirical Evidence
▪ #2: Are identities really static?
▪ #3: How do we explain contemporary identities?
What is structuralism? Economy, Class Divisions
Nationalism is politically conceived via State
State Power Fighting Wars, Paying Taxes
What is constructivism? Historical construction
Nationalism as form of culture
▪ Why has it emerged?
▪ Why has it persisted?
Primordial Bonds: Threat, Passion, Loyalty
Cultural Boundaries: Boundaries, Borders
Material Interests: Goods and Resources
Rational Calculations: Strategy of Individual
Social Psychology: “Us” vs. “Them”