Nano technology white paper
this paper contain how the nano is used for our life
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nano technology white paper
Nanotechnology presents potential opportunities to create
better materials and products.
Our economy will be increasingly affected by
nanotechnology as more products containing
nanomaterials move from research and
development into production and commerce.
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter (10-9 m)—about
one hundred thousand times smaller than the diameter of
a human hair, a thousand times smaller than a red blood
cell, (or) about half the size of the diameter of DNA.
These nanomaterials are composed
mostly of carbon.
most commonly taking the form of a
hollow spheres, ellipsoids, or tubes.
Spherical and ellipsoidal carbon
nanomaterials are referred to as
fullerenes, while cylindrical ones are
These particles have many potential
applications, including improved films
and coatings, stronger and lighter
materials, and applications in
These nanomaterials include quantum dots, nanogold,
and metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide.
A quantum dot is a closely packed semiconductor crystal
comprised of hundreds or thousands of atoms, and whose
size is on the order of a few nanometers to a few hundred
Changing the size of quantum dots changes their
These nanomaterials are nanosized polymers built
from branched units. The surface of a dendrimer
has numerous chain ends, which can be tailored to
perform specific chemical functions.
This property could also be useful for catalysis.
Also, because three-dimensional dendrimers
contain interior cavities into which other
molecules could be placed, they may be useful for
combine nanoparticles with other nanoparticles or
with larger, bulk-type materials.
Nanoparticles, such as nanosized clays, are already being
added to products ranging from auto parts to packaging
materials, to enhance mechanical, thermal, barrier, and
Examples of Products that Use
Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials:
coatings for pans
Projected Stages of Nanotechnology
Technological Complexity increasing
First Generation ~2001: Passive nanostructures
Nano-structured coatings, nanoparticles, nanostructured metals, polymers, ceramics,
Catalysts, composites, displays
Second Generation ~Now: Active nanostructures
Transistors, amplifiers, targeted drugs and chemicals, actuators, adaptive structures,
sensors, diagnostic assays, fuel cells, solar cells, high performance nanocomposites, ceramics, meta
Third Generation ~ 2010: 3-D nanosystems and systems of nanosystems Various,
assembly techniques networking at the nanoscale and new architectures,
Biomimetic materials, novel therapeutics/targeted drug delivery
Fourth Generation ~2015 Molecular Nanosystems
Molecular devices ”by design”, atomic design, emerging functions
Why Nanotechnology Is Important to EPA
(Environmental Protection Agency)
Nanotechnology holds great promise for creating new materials with enhanced
properties and attributes.
These properties, such as greater catalytic efficiency, increased electrical
conductivity, and improved hardness and strength
For example: nanosized cerium oxide has been developed to decrease diesel
emissions, and iron nanoparticles can remove contaminants from soil and ground
Nanosized sensors hold promise for improved detection and tracking of
Environmental Benefits of
As applications of nanotechnology develop over time, they have the potential to
help shrink the human footprint on the environment.
This is important, because over the next 50 years the world’s population is expected
to grow 50%, global economic activity is expected to grow 500%, and global energy
and materials use is expected to grow 300% (World Resources
increased levels of production and consumption have offset our gains in cleaner and
This has been true for municipal waste generation, as well as for environmental
impacts associated with vehicle travel, groundwater pollution, and agricultural
Benefits Through Environmental
Benefits through Other Applications that
Water: sustain water resources of quality and availability for desired uses
Energy: generate clean energy and use it efficiently
Materials: use material carefully and shift to environmentally preferable
Ecosystems: protect and restore ecosystem functions, goods, and services
Land: support ecologically sensitive land management and development
Air: sustain clean and healthy air
Energy Savings from Eight
Nanotechnology Application Estimated Percent
Reduction in Total
Annual U.S. Energy
Strong, lightweight materials in transportation
Solid state lighting (such as white light LED’s)
Self-optimizing motor systems (smart sensors)
Smart roofs (temperature-dependent reflectivity)
Novel energy-efficient separation membranes
Energy efficient distillation through
supercomputing Molecular-level control of
Transmission line conductance
Human Exposures and Their
Measurement and Control:
As the use of nanomaterials in society increases, it is reasonable to assume that
their presence in environmental media will increase proportionately, with
consequences for human and environmental exposure. Potential human exposures
to nanomaterials, or mixtures of nanomaterials, include workers exposed during the
production, use, recycling and disposal of
nanomaterials, general population exposure from releases to the environment as a
result of the production, use, recycling and disposal in the workplace, and direct
general population exposure during the use of commercially available products
Health Effects of Environmental
Technologies That Use Nanomaterials:
Nanotechnology is being employed to develop pollution control and remediation
Reactive zero-valent iron nanoparticles are being used to treat soil and aquifers
contaminated with halogenated hydrocarbons, such as TCE (trichloroethylene) or
DCE (dichloroethylene), and heavy metals
Photocatalytic titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are being incorporated
into building materials such as cement and surface coatings in order to reduce
ambient air nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels.
Nanotechnology involves the understanding, manipulation,
and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100
Nanotechnology encompasses science, engineering and
technology and involves imaging, measuring, modeling,
and manipulating matter at the nanoscale.
Materials developed with nanotechnology
include the following engineered
Carbon buckyballs or fullerenes;
Metal oxide nanoparticles (e.g., titanium dioxide); and
Quantum dots, which are nanoscale semiconductor
materials (e.g., cadmium selenide).
some engineered nanomaterials are produced
and used in commercial applications today:
Sunscreens and cosmetics;
Longer-lasting tennis balls and light-weight, stronger tennis racquets;
Stain-free clothing and mattresses;
Polymer films used in displays for laptops, cell phones, digital cameras;
Coatings for easier cleaning glass;
Bumpers and catalytic converters on cars; and
Protective and glare-reducing coatings for eyeglasses and cars.
Disadvantage of nanotechnology:
Disadvantages of Nanotechnology in terms of Security:
Nanotechnology can cause a brutal risk in the field of terrorism. The terrorism
and anti groups can make use of nanotechnology as a new form of torturing the
communities as nanotechnology also has the capability of destructing the
human body at the molecular level.
Disadvantages of Nanotechnology related to Privacy:
Privacy is the other potential risk involved with Nanotechnology. As
Nanotechnology deals with the designing of compact and minute devices, there
are chances for more eavesdropping than that already exists.
Nanotech devices and machines have taken place of human to work faster and
accurately which has lessen the importance of men power in the field of
Nanotechnology has increased risk to the health also , nanoparticles due to
there their small size can cause inhalation problem and many other fatal
diseases. by just inhaling for 60 seconds in the air contain nano particles can
damage lungs easily.
Advantages of nanotechnology:
Shaping memory materials:
Nanotechnology introduced the techniques to distort the plastic and silicon
structures, which allowed the recovering of original shape of the material.
Metal oxide nano-wires as chemical sensors:
When metal are treated at nano scale they can carry huge amount of electrons and
can be used as chemical sensors.
Use of nano-materials for water purification:
Nano materials can purify water up to 99.9 percent without affecting the original
flavor the water
Self-assembling the key feature of nanotechnology .there is no other technology
in which molecules under processing can rearrange themselves easily. Molecular
nanotechnology can produce many new components from the existing ones by
simply rearranging themselves.
Fabrication of electronic biosensors:
Nanotechnology introduced the nano fabrications, which has reduced the cost of
some of the major health equipment that includes electronic biosensors.