National & international communication by Amber Malik & Hina Nawab
new world information & communication order
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - National & international communication by Amber Malik & Hina Nawab
New World Information and
“The Right to inform and be informed”
“New International Information Order” (NIIO)
appeared during the 1970s as a result of what they
perceived as their disadvantaged situation in the field of
information and communication.
Third World countries, encouraged by the movement
of the Non-Aligned countries (NAM), protested against
the global leadership of the Western news agencies (AP,
AFP, UPI, and REUTER).
These agencies were perceived as controlling up to 95
% of worldwide information flows.
The New World Information and Communication Order
(NWICO) was younger sister to a 1974 UN-sponsored
proposal for a New International Economic Order (NIEO).
NWICO was created to foster more equitable
communications between developed and developing
NWICO was articulated through various forums during
the 1970s, culminating with the 1980 United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) General Conference in Belgrade, which
outlined the principles of NWICO
The World Summit on Information
Society(WSIS) is the first event of its
kind, within the United Nations, to deal
with the issue of information in the
It took place in two phases:
first in Geneva (2001-2003)
then in Tunis (2003-2005).
The complexity of the issues discussed
transformed it into an ongoing process that will
last until 2015, as the WSIS is supposed to
contribute to the UN Millennium goals,
especially development and the eradication of
poverty and illiteracy.
The WSIS ended with the “Tunis Agenda”, a
document that proposes ten priority lines of action
for the issues that reached a consensus and the
creation of a digital solidarity fund. As for the
issues that failed to create a consensus, they are
discussed in the Internet Governance Forum, a
multi-stakeholder space for debate, without power
of decision or recommendation.
NWICO and changing international
Significant changes in four major arenas of hard
and soft power (Nye & Owens 1996; Cohen
- Hard power refers to material forces such as
military and economic leverage, while;
- Soft power suggests symbolic forces such as
ideological, cultural, or moral appeals.
Major changes seem to be taking place in both hard and
soft power conceptions and calculations.
First, information technologies have profoundly
transformed the nature of military power because of
emerging weapons systems dependent on laser and
Second, satellite remote sensing and information
processing have established an information power and
deterrence analogous to the nuclear power and deterrence
of an earlier era.
Third, global television communication networks such as
CNN, BBC, and Star TV have added image politics and
public diplomacy to the traditional arsenals of power
politics and secret diplomacy.
Fourth, global communication networks working
through NGOs and interactive technologies such as the
Internet are creating a global civil society and pressure
groups that have served as new actors in international
relations. Although no grand theoretical generalizations on
the dynamics of hard and soft power are yet possible,
trends indicate that the latter is assuming increasing
The fundamental issues of
imbalances in global communication
had been discussed for some time.
The American media scholar Wilbur Schramm noted in 1964 that the
flow of news among nations is thin,.
From a more radical perspective, Herbert Schiller observed in 1969
that developing countries had little meaningful input into decisions
about radio frequency allocations for satellites at a key meeting in
Geneva in 1963.
Schiller pointed out that many satellites had military applications.
Intelsat which was set up for international co-operation in satellite
communication was also dominated by the United States.
New World Information Order or the New International
Mass media concerns began with the meeting of non-
aligned nations in Algiers, 1973; again in Tunis 1976, and
later in 1976 at the New Delhi Ministerial Conference
of Non-Aligned Nations.
The 'new order' plan was textually formulated by Tunisia's
News reporting on the developing world that reflects the priorities
of news agencies in London, Paris and New York.
Reporting of natural disasters and military coups rather than the
An unbalanced flow of mass media from the developed world
(especially the United States) to the underdeveloped countries.
Advertising agencies in the developed world have indirect but
significant effects on mass media
An unfair division of the radio spectrum.
There were similar concerns about the allocation of the geostationary
orbit (parking spots in space) for satellites.
Satellite broadcasting of television signals into Third World countries
Use of satellites to collect information
The protection of journalists from violence was raised as an issue for discussion.
For example, journalists were targeted by various military dictatorships in Latin
America in the 1970s. As part of NWICO debates there were suggestions for study
on how to protect journalists and even to discipline journalists who broke
"generally recognized ethical standards". However, the MacBride Commission
specifically came out against the idea of licensing journalists.
Response of US:
The United States was hostile to NWICO.
Barriers to the free flow of communication
To the interests of American media corporations.
Its disagreed with the McBride report
NWICO as dangerous to freedom of the press
The relentless processes of historical and social change,
the ambivalent commitment of international agencies to
the new world order and the erstwhile efforts of private
sector, non-governmental organizations can be conjoined
to construct alternative structural possibilities and moral
categories sufficient for a more encompassing and human
context for the development, organization and uses of the
new means of communication.