Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging
NANOPARTICLES FOR MAGNETIC
Nanotechnology emerged as a
understanding and manipulating materials by
converging concepts from engineering,
chemistry, biology, medicine and others.
National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI),
nanoparticles have a diameter ranging from 1 to
naturally occurring nanoparticles such as
Nanotechnologies are joined by intense
development of imaging modalities to assist
with disease detection.
Molecular imaging refers to the development
of molecular probes for the visualization of
the cellular function, characterization and the
measurement of molecular processes in
living organisms at the cellular and molecular
level without perturbing them .
The use of engineered Nanoparticles in
biological investigations has increased
exponentially in the last 5 years for a variety
NANOPARTICLES IN MOLECULAR IMAGING
Many applications aimed at diagnosis or treatment of
Various types of nanoparticle are now under
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles,
Polymeric Nanoparticles and Iodinated Nanoparticles.
Metallic nanoparticles possess immense
potential as X-ray contrast imaging agents
owing to their potent X-ray absorption and
low toxicity profiles observed over short
durations in animals.
Gold nanoparticles have gained significant
attention owing to the potential
biocompatibility, relatively low short-term
toxicity, and high absorption coefficient and
physical density compared with iodine.
Therefore, there is a significant demand for
the synthesis of these types of nanoparticles.
GOLD NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL
IMAGING (COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY)
the use of gold
nanoparticles as an X-ray
CT contrast agent to
detect tumors in mice .
Popovtzer , however,
demonstrated the use
of gold nanoparticles as
target-specific agents to
detect head and neck
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) was
selectively targeted with gold nanorods with
conjugated UM-A9 antibodies.
1. Gold nanorods were synthesized by the
method of Nikoobakht and El-Sayed.
2. UM-A9 antibody was conjugated to
polyacrylic acid (PAA) adsorbed to the gold
3. Antibody-coated gold rods were then mixed
with the cancer cell suspension.
(incubated for 1.5hour)
4. washed and redispersed.
5. CT scans were obtained using a clinical CT.
6. The A9-antibody-coated gold nanorods
targeted the SCC cells and showed an
increased attenuation coefficient (ΔHU; 168 –
7. Non-targeted nanorods, non-cancerous cells
(normal fibroblast cells) and other cancerous
cells (melanoma) showed an attenuation
coefficient (ΔHU; 28 – 32)
[Note: The increased X-ray attenuation in
targeted SCC cells compared with normal
cells substantiates the basic premise for the
development of molecular X-ray CT imaging
QUANTUM DOTS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
Quantum dots are
increasingly used as
fluorophores for in
Gao recently described the
probes based on QDs
for in vivoimaging of
human prostate cancer in
Gao recently developed a QD-based contrast
agent for brain imaging.
The agent was based on surface
modification of QDs using poly(ethylene
glycol)-poly(lactic acid), which was then
functionalized with wheat germ agglutinin.
The QD-based imaging agent was delivered
to the brain by means of intranasal
The QDs accumulated in the brain for > 4 h
and were cleared 8 h after administration.
IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES IN BIOMEDICAL
IMAGING (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING)
MRI is based on the behavior,
alignment and interaction of
protons in the presence of an
applied magnetic field
Several nanoparticles have been
developed to improve contrast in
A significant benefit associated with
iron oxide nanoparticles is their
biocompatibility, and ready
detection at moderate
MRI has been used extensively to study the
migration of cells (cellular trafficking) with
magnetic nanoparticle probes.
Xie synthesized ultra-small iron oxide
nanoparticles (USPION) for specific targeting
to integrin αvβ3-rich tumor cells.
Huh and co-workers developed well-defined
iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with
Herceptin to image breast cancers by MRI.
Herceptin binds specifically to the HER2/neu
receptor, which is over expressed in some
breast cancer cells.
Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles used for
ultrasensitive molecular imaging .
Engineered nanoparticles that possess high
and tunable magnetism offer improved
sensitivity and lower dosing compared with
conventional iron oxide contrast agents.
SPIONs have a high saturation
magnetization and loss of magnetization in
the absence of magnetic field, and these
nanoparticles are perceived to be relatively
less toxic than optical imaging agents.
CARBON NANOTUBES FOR BIOMEDICAL
Applications of CNTs in
biomedical imaging have
recently emerged and are
A few bioimaging
applications using CNTs
have been developed for
cancer cell destruction,
detection and dynamic
CNTs (f-CNTs) can form
substrates based on
DENDRIMERS IN BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
Dendrimers are well-defined,
molecules that are
synthesized with precise
structural control and low
Tunable variation in size,
the availability of a large
number of reactive sites,
and interior void space
systems for biomedical
Magnevist is a commonly used contrast
agent for MRI, although rapid clearance and
nonspecificity hinders its utility.
MRI studies revealed that the PAMAM-G5-FA
dendrimer binds specifically to xenograft
tumors established with human epithelial
cancer cells that over expressed folate
Significant signal enhancement was
observed in tumors when compared with
MISCELLANEOUS NANOPARTICLES EMERGING
IN MOLECULAR IMAGING
Polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles
Calcium phosphate nanoparticles
REENA ESTHER. B