Polsoc week 8 slideshare
The concept of citizenship tends to be seen as inclusive. Today, more and more emphasis is placed on education for citizenship and is a major part of the curriculum. However, different theories of citizenship conceive it in different ways. Different tiers of citizenship are created according to the extent to which a person is said to belong. In some states, citizenship is conferred according to birth (jus soli) whereas in others it is a question of inheritance (jus sanguinus). However, even if someone is nominally a full citizen, they can be excluded in different ways, for example, due to their sex, ethnicity, or class status. This week we will examine the concept of citizenship and look at who is included, and who is excluded by it. We will pay particular attention to the ways in which class and socioeconomic deprivation have an effect on the ability to be a full citizen by examining the role of education, the Welfare State, and political participation.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Polsoc week 8 slideshare
Political Sociology Citizenship & Inequality
OverviewClassical ideas of citizenshipWho is left out?Critiquing citizenshipInequality & societal well-beingFeral youth or feral capitalism?Redressing inequality
Classical views of citizenshipIn groups, outlinethe main componentsof: Civil rights Social rights Political rights
Limits of rights-based citizenship? Which groups/ individuals gets left out? Is this always obvious? What about non- citizens?
Critiquing citizenship “We may all be human, but humanity has always excluded, despised and degraded some of its parts. Humanity is notone... Human rights... do not belong to humans; they help us construct who and how one becomes human” Costas Douzinas (2009)
Inequality & societal well-being “[W]hen people in the same social class, at the same level of income or education, are compared across countries, those in more equal societies do better. So, at any given level of personal income or education, someones quality of life will be higher if he or she has the same level of income or education but lives in a more equal society. The conclusion is that greater equality usually makes most difference to the least well off, but still produces some benefits for the well off.” Wilkinson and Pickett (2011)
Austerity & poverty“Overall poverty takes various forms,including: lack of income and productiveresources to ensure sustainablelivelihoods; hunger and malnutrition; illhealth; limited or lack of access toeducation and other basic services;increased morbidity and mortality fromillness; homelessness and inadequatehousing; unsafe environments and socialdiscrimination and exclusion. It is alsocharacterised by lack of participation indecision making and in civil, social andcultural life. It occurs in all countries:as mass poverty in many developingcountries, pockets of poverty amid wealthin developed countries, loss oflivelihoods as a result of economicrecession, sudden poverty as a result ofdisaster or conflict, the poverty of low-wage workers, and the utter destitution ofpeople who fall outside family supportsystems, social institutions and safetynets.” United Nations (1995)
Feral youth or feral capitalism? “The youth are so disillusioned with society that they feel that they have no hope and no future, no love and no respect and so, they have turned inwards and formed their own leadership, disregarding those who should be fighting for their interests, yet have failed them so miserably. We are so quick to condemn these youths but have failed tolook at the underlying factors that have induced such a rapid regression. These youth are not aliens, they are our children!” Merlin Emmanuel (2011)
Redressing inequality Who does poverty and inequality benefit? Is inequality a matter of personal responsibility? What role, if any, should be played by the state? What measures should be taken to alleviate poverty and inequality?