Natural gas exploration and development in india
natural gas exploration and development policies basics
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural gas exploration and development in india
DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
AKSHAYA MISHRA (14MPE012)
MANASH PAUL (14MPE013)
SAURAV SHARMA (14MPE014)
NG is a fossil fuel, formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and
animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of
It is basically hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane,
varying amounts of other higher alkanes and even a lesser percentage of
carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide.
NG is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with
other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates.
MECHANISM OF FORMATION
Created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills
and shallow sediments.
Created deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure,
from buried organic materials.
Fuel for vehicles(CNG)
Manufacturing of fertilizers
Chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other
commercially important organic chemicals.
FEW FACTS ABOUT NG
The world's first industrial extraction of natural gas started at
Fredonia, Ney York, USA in 1825.
By 2009, 66 trillion cubic meters (or 8%) had been used out of the
total 850 trillion cubic meters of estimated remaining recoverable
reserves of natural gas.
Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3.4
trillion cubic meters of gas per year, the total estimated remaining
economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250
REASON FOR EXPLORATION
Looking at this present scenario, availability and stock, its pretty
much obvious and important to look for the NG and for that purpose
the EXPLORATION of NG is necessary.
WHAT IS EXPLORATION
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by
petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits
beneath the Earth’s surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Exploration is the process of trying to find accumulations of oil and
natural gas trapped under the Earth’s surface.
PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN
There isn't any way to be absolutely sure where new oil and natural
gas reserves are located, so petroleum engineers need to collect clues
as to what lies deep beneath the earth's surface.
Geological risk: difficulty of extraction and possibility that the
accessible reserves in any deposit will be smaller than the estimated.
TACKLING OF PROBLEMS
Advanced technology has revolutionized the exploration process for
oil and natural gas, and helps them pinpoint potential reserves with
greatly improved accuracy.
This results in fewer wells, and lowered exploration costs.
Engineers can gather above-ground clues using airplanes and
satellites to map the surface, to identify promising geological
formations, and to look for oil and natural gas seeps.
Ships can do the same for the ocean floor.
But engineers often get much more useful information by looking at geological structures and rock properties
below the surface. They use a number of strategies including:
Seismic surveys are done by sending high-energy sound waves into the ground and measuring how long they take to
reflect back to the surface. Since sound travels at different speeds as it passes through different materials,
computers can use seismic data to create a 3-D map of what lies below the surface.
Geologists and geophysicists – known as "explorationists" – use these 3-D seismic images to look for accumulations of
oil and natural gas. Engineers then use the data to plan the safest, most cost-effective well path to the reservoir.
Once a reservoir has been located and put into production, a series of 3-D seismic surveys can be taken over time to
see if all of the oil and natural gas reserves are being efficiently drained. If not, additional wells can be drilled to
produce these bypassed pockets of reserves.
While seismic data are extremely useful to geologists, these surveys are also very expensive.
When the data indicate a likely site for oil and natural gas reserves, an exploration well is often drilled. Rock samples
from the well are brought to the surface and analyzed. Well logs measure the electrical, magnetic and radioactive
properties of the rocks.
By examining this information, a geologist can learn a great deal about the sub-surface structures and whether or not
the site is likely to produce oil and natural gas in economic or "paying" quantities.
Gravity and Geomagnetic Surveys
These relatively inexpensive techniques can identify potential oil and natural gas bearing sedimentary basins and
structures. High-resolution aero-magnetic surveys done by special aircraft can also show fault traces and
differentiate between different rock types near the surface.
Many of the U.S.’ untapped oil and natural gas resources lie beneath sensitive environments ranging from the Arctic tundra to the
southern wetlands to offshore sites. Over the past four decades, the oil and natural gas industry has developed innovative
approaches for operating in these sensitive areas, improving both environmental and economic performance.
Protecting the Ocean - From the Gulf of Mexico to the North Sea, the oil and natural gas industry is using advanced technology to
search for new energy resources in deeper water while improving environmental and safety precautions.
Advanced 3-D seismic surveys enable operators to pinpoint potential reserves more accurately, which translates into fewer wells
drilled and faster, more efficient resource recovery.
Side-scan sonar is used to identify safe sites for production platforms, avoiding sensitive habitats and unstable areas.
Extended reach and horizontal wells reduce the number of wells and production platforms needed to develop the field.
Safety and Environmental Management Programs have practically eliminated oil spills from offshore platforms. Subsea blowout
preventers, along with steady advancements in well engineering and equipment and procedures to manage subsurface pressures or
"kicks" are used to maintain well control even in very deep water.
Protecting Wetlands - Today, almost everyone realizes the important role wetlands play in the environment. Where there are
potential oil and natural gas reserves located under wetlands, the oil and natural gas industry takes care to minimize risks.
Arctic Challenges - The Arctic presents some real obstacles to producing energy, including extremely low winter temperatures and
very remote locations. Advanced technology has allowed the oil and gas industry to expand the areas that can be explored, while
protecting the sensitive Arctic environment.
To avoid damaging the tundra, exploration is only conducted during the winter. This allows the use of roads, bridges, drilling pads,
and airstrips constructed of ice, which melt away each spring. For sites that are too remote for ice roads, alternate means of
transportation are used. Large all-terrain vehicles with huge balloon tires carry equipment across the frozen tundra leaving no tracks,
or helicopters are used to move equipment and materials.
Advanced horizontal and multilateral drilling is employed to allow the industry to develop large reservoirs with far fewer surface
locations and wells. Over 40,000 acres of subsurface reservoir rock can now be drained from a site that takes up less than 10 acres
on the surface.
Natural Gas Infrastructure in India
Report by Industry Group
Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board
The Indian economy presently is believed to have established itself on a healthy growth
path and this would increase going forward the energy consumption in the country. This
increase in consumption is expected to be supplemented by an alteration in the primary
energy mix of India on account of the substitution of oil by natural gas.
The share of natural gas in the energy mix of India is expected to increase to 20% in
2025 as compared to 11% in 2010.
In recent years the demand for natural gas in India has increased significantly due to its
higher availability, development of transmission and distribution infrastructure, the
savings from the usage of natural gas in place of alternate fuels, the environment friendly
characteristics of natural gas as a fuel and the overall favourable economics of supplying
gas at reasonable prices to end consumers. Power and Fertilizer sector remain the two
biggest contributors to natural gas demand in India and continue to account for more
than 55% of gas consumption. India can be divided into six major regional natural gas
markets namely Northern, Western, Central, Southern, Eastern and North-Eastern
market, out of which the Western and Northern markets currently have the highest
consumption due to better pipeline connectivity.
supply of natural gas is expected to grow at a CAGR(compound annual growth rate) of 7.2%
from 2012 to 2030 reaching 400MMSCMD(million standard cubic feet per day) by 2021-22 and
474 MMSCMD by 2029-30.
Objective of the study and subgroup
The PNGRB in its meeting on 22nd November 2011 decided to form a Industry-group for
formulating a Vision 2030 - Natural Gas Infrastructure in India and nominated the companies listed
below on the committee. The key terms for the group included projecting the infrastructure required
for development of gas sector in India, keeping in view the demand and supply of gas, and existing
infrastructure in the country. The terms also included providing suggestions on policy measures to
be taken by Government of India / PNGRB to meet the stated objective of development of gas grid
in the country.
List of nominated member companies / organizations and their representatives
• BG India - Akhil Mehrotra (Chairman)
• BPCL(bharat petroleum corporation limited) - Shri Vijay Duggal
• CEA(central electricity authority) - Shri V K Singh
• Directorate General of Hydrocarbons - Shri Sudhir Kumar
• GSPL(gujrat state petronet limited) - Shri Devendra Agarwal
• GAIL - Shri Ajay Kumar Porwal, Shri Anant Khobragade
• HPCL – Shri Deepak Hota, Shri A V Sarma,
• IOCL – Shri D S Nanaware
• Kribhco /NFL – Shri R K Agarwal , Ms Ritu Goswami
• ONGC – Ms Tinku Nischal
• Planning Commission – Shri Rajnath Ram
• PLL - Shri Man Mohan Ahuja
• Reliance – Shri Neeraj Pasricha , Shri Manoj Pandey
• Shell – Shri Anindya Chowdhury
•Enabling efficient usage of gas / Infrastructure status to gas pipelines
In order to provide adequate support to the development of natural gas market
and encourage investment in the natural gas infrastructure in India, policy level
initiatives would be required to allow gas to trade freely in the market where
suppliers, large consumers, traders etc.
The share of natural gas in the primary energy mix of India is expected to go
beyond 20% by 2030 increasing, as a result, the importance of natural gas in the
context of energy security. Therefore it is imperative that a comprehensive policy
initiative be directed at exploring the option of maintaining strategic storage/buffer
stock post 2020.
•Environmental and Social Impact
Oil and gas pipeline projects have been among the biggest infrastructure projects
in developing countries in recent years. The climate change impact of methane
leakage from aging gas pipelines has been one of the biggest impacts of such
projects in the past.
•Expediting permission process
Transportation of petroleum products comprising of both liquids and gases
through cross-county pipelines has proved to be safest and most environment
•Reform and support for key gas based consumers
Power sector form the anchor load for gas producers and gas pipeline and hence the
health of power sector and consequently the reforms in the sector is critical to the
development of gas infrastructure in India.
•Evaluate alternatives to the present differential tax regime
Natural gas attracts differential tax treatment in different states within India which
restricts free movement and swaps across geographies.
•Capacity building (resources) to help development of natural gas infrastructure
Capacity building for the development of natural gas infrastructure, through
development of training institutes for skilled and semi skilled workers, is an area that
requires policy focus.
•Long term gas tie ups
The increasing usage of natural gas would not only be cleaner for the environment but
it would also lead to greater diversification of the energy/fuel basket of India thereby
strengthening the country’s energy security.
The natural gas space in India has seen major regulatory reforms in recent years.
The PNGRB should ensure that the regulations are dynamic and should keep on
changing / evolving keeping in view the factors like past experience, state of maturity
of the market and stakeholder requirements.
•Robust Open Access Code
There is a need for a robust open access code for the natural gas pipelines as it is
expected to facilitate access to pipeline infrastructure and benefit market participants.
•Independent operator for system discipline and security of supply
There is also a need to consider constituting a independent Pipeline System Operator (PSO) in
order to streamline tariff-sharing among various pipeline system owners as well as ensuring system
•Tariff recovery mechanism
Tariff recovery is a function of the maturity of infrastructure and the sophistication of the natural gas
market in a country.
Development of natural gas transportation market also remains one of the important steps in the
movement of Indian natural gas market towards maturity.
Pipeline Infrastructure – Development Plans
By the end of the 13th five year plan, India is expected to have a natural gas pipeline network of
around 31,432 kms with a design capacity of 782 MMSCMD with a nation wide gas grid and more
uniform pipeline network coverage in place.